Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 3 Event Portfolio Leveraging

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-911396-91-8-4198

ISBN: 978-1-911396-91-8

Published: September 2019

Component type: chapter

Published in: Event Portfolio Management

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-911396-91-8-4260



In order to exploit the strategic value of an event portfolio, a set of leveraging activities should be designed and implemented by event portfolio managers (Ziakas, 2014a). Such activities could be focused on the relationships among different events and their stakeholders. They can synergise events with one another and with the host destination’s overall product and service mix (Ziakas, 2010, 2014a; Ziakas & Costa, 2011). This chapter thoroughly considers the concepts of leveraging and cross-leveraging and their application.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Antchak, Ziakas & Getz, 2019

Antchak, V., Ziakas, V. & Getz, D. (2019) "Chapter 3 Event Portfolio Leveraging" In: Antchak, V., Ziakas, V. & Getz, D. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-911396-91-8-4198


Boukas, N., Ziakas, V., & Boustras, G. (2013). Olympic legacy and cultural tourism: Exploring the facets of Athens' Olympic heritage. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19(2), 203-228. doi:10.1080/13527258.2011.651735


Boulton, R. E. S., Libert, B. D., & Samek, S. M. (2000). A business model for the new economy. Journal of Business Strategy, 21(4), 29-35. doi:10.1108/eb040102


Bramwell, B. (1997). Strategic planning before and after a mega-event. Tourism Management, 18(3), 167-176. doi:10.1016/s0261-5177(96)00118-5


Chalip, L. (2004). Beyond impact: A general model for sport event leverage. In B. W. Ritchie & A. Daryl (Eds.), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 226-252). Clevedon: Channel View.

Chalip, L. (2005). Marketing, media and place promotion. In J. Higham (Ed.), Sport Tourism Destinations: Issues, opportunitiea and analysis (pp. 162-176). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.


Chalip, L. (2006). Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(2), 109-127. doi:10.1080/14775080601155126


Chalip, L., & Costa, C. A. (2005). Sport event tourism and the destination brand: Towards a general theory. Sport in Society, 8(2), 218-237. doi:10.1080/17430430500108579


Clark, G. (2008). Local Development Benefits from Staging Global Events: Organisa- tion for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). https://www. oecd.org/cfe/leed/localdevelopmentbenefitsfromstagingglobalevents.htm

Cornelissen, S., Bob, U., & Swart, K. (2011). Towards redefining the concept of legacy in relation to sport mega-events: Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Development Southern Africa, 28(3), 307-318. doi:10.1080/03768 35x.2011.595990


García, B. (2001). Enhancing sport marketing through cultural and arts programs: Lessons from the Sydney 2000 Olympic Arts Festivals. Sport Management Review, 4(2), 193-219. doi:10.1016/s1441-3523(01)70075-7


Getz, D. (2013). Event Tourism: Concepts, international case studies, and research. New York, NY: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Gibson, H. J., Willming, C., & Holdnak, A. (2003). Small-scale event sport tourism: Fans as tourists. Tourism Management, 24(2), 181-190. doi:10.1016/ S0261-5177(02)00058-4


Gratton, C., & Preuss, H. (2008). Maximizing olympic impacts by building up legacies. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25(14), 1922-1938. doi:10.1080/09523360802439023


Higham, J., & Hinch, T. (2002). Tourism, sport and seasons: The challenges and potential of overcoming seasonality in the sport and tourism sectors. Tourism Management, 23(2), 175-185. doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00046-2


Hiller, H. H. (1998). Assessing the impact of mega-events: A linkage model. Current Issues in Tourism, 1(1), 47-57. doi:10.1080/13683509808667832


Hiller, H. H. (2006). Post-event outcomes and the post-modern turn: The Olympics and urban transformations. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(4), 317-332. doi:10.1080/16184740601154458


Jago, L., Dwyer, L., Lipman, G., Lill, D. v., & Vorster, S. (2010). Optimising the potential of mega-events: An overview. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1(3), 220-237. doi:10.1108/17852951011078023


Kaplanidou, K., & Karadakis, K. (2010). Understanding the legacies of a host Olympic city: The case of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games. Sport marketing quarterly, 19(2), 110-117.

Leopkey, B., & Parent, M. M. (2012). Olympic Games legacy: From general benefits to sustainable long-term legacy. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 29(6), 924-943. doi:10.1080/09523367.2011.623006


O'Brien, D. (2006). Event business leveraging the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 240-261. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2005.10.011


O'Brien, D. (2007). Points of leverage: Maximizing host community benefit from a regional surfing festival. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(2), 141-165. doi:10.1080/16184740701353315


O'Brien, D., & Chalip, L. (2008). Sport events and strategic leveraging: Pushing towards the triple bottom line. In W. A & M. D (Eds.), Tourism management: Analysis, behaviour and strategy (pp. 318-338). Oxfordshire, England: CABI.


Parent, M. M., & Smith-Swan, S. (2013). Managing Major Sports Events: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.. Pereira, E. C. S., Mascarenhas, M. V. M., Flores, A. J. G., & Pires, G. M. V. S. (2015). Nautical small-scale sports events portfolio: A strategic leveraging approach. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(1), 27-47. doi:10.1080/1618 4742.2015.1007883


Preuss, H. (2007a). The conceptualisation and measurement of mega sport event legacies. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3), 207-228. doi:10.1080/14775080701736957


Preuss, H. (2007b). FIFA World Cup 2006 and its legacy on tourism. In R. Conrady & M. Buck (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2007 (pp. 83-102). Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Quinn, B. (2013). Key Concepts in Special Events Management. London: SAGE.


Richards, G., & Palmer, R. (2010). Eventful cities: Cultural management and urban revitalisation. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Exploring small-scale sport event tourism: The case of Rugby Union and the Super 12 competition. In B. W. Ritchie & A. Daryl (Eds.), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 135-154). Clevedon: Channel View.

Ritchie, B. W. (2005). Small-scale sport event tourism: The changing dynamics of the New Zealand Masters Games. In M. Novelli (Ed.), Niche Tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases (pp. 157-170). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.


Ritchie, B. W., Mosedale, L., & King, J. (2002). Profiling sport tourists: The case of Super 12 Rugby Union in the Australian capital territory, Australia. Current Issues in Tourism, 5(1), 33-44. doi:10.1080/13683500208667906


Smith, A. (2014). Leveraging sport mega-events: new model or convenient justification? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6(1), 15-30. doi:10.1080/19407963.2013.823976


Taks, M., Chalip, L., Green, B. C., Kesenne, S. & Martyn, S. (2009). Factors affecting repeat visitation and flow-on tourism as sources of event strategy sustainability. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(2-3), 121-142. doi:10.1080/14775080902965066


Turner, V. (1969). The Ritual Process: Structure and anti-structure. Chicago, MA: Aldine Publishing.

Turner, V. (1974). Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors. New York, NY: Cornell University Press.

VanWynsberghe, R., Derom, I., & Maurer, E. (2012). Social leveraging of the 2010 Olympic Games: 'sustainability' in a City of Vancouver initiative. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 4(2), 185-205.


Weed, M. (2008). Olympic Tourism. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.


Westerbeek, H., & Linley, M. (2012). Building city brands through sport events: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Journal of Brand Strategy, 1(2), 193-205.

Wilson, R. (2006). The economic impact of local sport events: Significant, limited or otherwise? A case study of four swimming events. Managing Leisure, 11(1), 57-70. doi:10.1080/13606710500445718


Ziakas, V. (2010). Understanding an event portfolio: the Uncovering of interrelationships, synergies, and leveraging opportunities. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 2(2), 144-164. doi:10.1080/19407963.201 0.482274


Ziakas, V. (2013). A multidimensional investigation of a regional event portfolio: Advancing theory and praxis. Event Management, 17(1), 27-48. doi:10.3727/152 599513x13623342048095


Ziakas, V. (2014a). Event Portfolio Planning and mManagement: A holistic approach. Abingdon: Routledge.


Ziakas, V. (2014b). Planning and leveraging event portfolios: Towards a holistic theory. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 23(3), 327-356. doi:10.10 80/19368623.2013.796868


Ziakas, V. (2015). For the benefit of all? Developing a critical perspective in mega-event leverage. Leisure Studies, 34(6), 689-702. doi:10.1080/02614367.20 14.986507


Ziakas, V. (2019). Issues, patterns and strategies in the development of event portfolios: configuring models, design and policy. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 11(1), 121-158. doi:10.1080/19407963.2018.1471481


Ziakas, V., & Boukas, N. (2012). A neglected legacy: Examining the challenges and potential for sport tourism development in post-Olympic Athens. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 3(3), 292-316. doi:10.1108/17582951211262710


Ziakas, V., & Costa, C. A. (2010). 'Between theatre and sport' in a rural event: Evolving unity and community development from the iside-out. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(1), 7-26. doi:10.1080/14775081003770892


Ziakas, V., & Costa, C. A. (2011). Event portfolio and multi-purpose development: Establishing the conceptual grounds. Sport Management Review, 14(4), 409-423. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.09.003


Ziakas, V., & Costa, C. A. (2012). 'The show must go on': event dramaturgy as consolidation of community. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 4(1), 28-47. doi:10.1080/19407963.2011.573392



Chapter 3 Event Portfolio Leveraging [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Event Portfolio Management

Chapter 3 Event Portfolio Leveraging [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details] Available as an inspection copyPrice: £36.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy