Chapter 11 Residents’ perceptions of cruise tourism in an overcrowded city The case of Venice
Published: April 2021
Component type: chapter
Published in: Sustainable and Collaborative Tourism in a Digital World
Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635765-4477
Tourism is one of the most important industries in Europe: it represents 10% of the European Union GDP and 12 million people are employed in this sector (UNWTO, 2018). Due to its important contribution to the economy and its impact on the community, it affects the everyday life of residents, both in a positive and negative way. Within the industry, cruise tourism is the fastest growing segment of leisure tourism (Klein, 2011). In the last twenty years, the cruise sector has increased significantly, amounting to 24.7 million passengers in 2016 (CLIA, 2018) and employing 1,021,681 people around the world (BREA, 2017). Further, the cruise sector produces $57.9 billion in direct expenditures, thus creating a total economic output of $125.96 billion worldwide. In this scenario, academic research has devoted to analyze the residents’ perceptions and attitudes toward cruise tourism development (i.e. Brida et al., 2011; Del Chiappa & Abbate, 2016). However, studies have mostly analyzed cruising destinations in the Caribbean, Arctic and the polar areas (Hritz & Cecil 2008; Diedrich 2010; Klein 2010; Stewart et al., 2013; Heeney, 2015; Stewart et al., 2015; Jordan & Vogt, 2017) and, recently, also in the Mediterranean area (Marušić et al., 2008; Brida et al., 2012; Peručić & Puh, 2012; Pulina et al., 2013; Del Chiappa & Abbate 2016; Del Chiappa et al., 2017; Del Chiappa, et al., 2018b; Del Chiappa, et al., 2018c), mainly focusing on port-of-call cruise destinations. Despite this, only few studies have been carried out on homeport cruise destinations so far (Brida & Zapata 2010), and very few studies exist on destinations where the number of tourists creates massive overcrowding. This study was therefore carried out by surveying a quota sample of 354 individuals residing in Venice. Venice was selected as the research setting for this study for two main reasons. First, it is the second homeport in the Mediterranean area and one of the most famous tourism destinations worldwide, with around 24 million tourists a year. Second, it is considered to be affected by the so-called overtourism phenomenon (Seraphin et al., 2018). Anti-tourism movements have been growing in the last few years, voicing their concerns toward the continuous growth of the tourism phenomenon in the city, particularly toward cruise-related activities. This renders the research setting particularly interesting for the purposes of this study. Specifically, this paper aims to profile residents in Venice according to their perceptions towards the impacts of cruise tourism, and to ascertain whether there are significant differences among the clusters based on the socio-demographic traits of respondents.
- Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4318-0462
- Francesca Checchinato, Foscari University (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0248-9001
- Marcello Atzeni, University of Sassari (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2360-9954
For the source title:
- Alain Decrop, University of Namur (Editor)
- Antónia Correia, University of Algarve (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6707-8289
- Alan Fyall, University of Central Florida (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0058-2410
- Metin Kozak, Dokuz Eylul University (Editor)
Chiappa, Checchinato & Atzeni, 2021
Chiappa, G.D., Checchinato, F. & Atzeni, M. (2021) "Chapter 11 Residents’ perceptions of cruise tourism in an overcrowded city The case of Venice" In: Decrop, A., Correia, A., Fyall, A. & Kozak, M. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635765-4834
Aguiló, E. & Roselló, J. (2005) 'Host community perceptions. A cluster analysis' Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4), 925-941.
Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C. & Vogt, C. A. (2005) 'Residents' perceptions of community tourism impacts', Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4), 1056-1076.
Ap, J. (1992) 'Residents' perceptions on tourism impacts' Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665-690.
Ap, J. & Crompton, J. L. (1993) 'Residents' strategies for responding to tourism impacts', Journal of Travel Research, 32(1), 47-50.
Belisle, F. J. & Hoy, D. R. (1980) 'The perceived impact of tourism by residents: A case study in Santa Maria, Columbia', Annals of Tourism Research, 12(1), 83-101.
Bertocchi, D. & Visentin, F. (2019) 'The Overwhelmed City": Physical and
social over-capacities of global tourism in Venice', Sustainability, 11(6937). doi:10.3390/su11246937.
BREA (2017) 'The Global Economic Contribution of Cruise Tourism 2016'. http://cruising.org/docs/defaultsource/research/global_economic_contribution _2016.pdf?sfvrsn=2 (Accessed on 17.09.2018).
Brida, J. G. Del Chiappa, G., Meleddu, G. & Pulina, M. (2014) 'A comparison of residents' perceptions in two cruise ports in the Mediterranean Sea.' International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(2), 180-190.
Brida, J. G., Del Chiappa, G., Meleddu, M. & Pulina, M. (2012) 'The perceptions of an island community towards cruise tourism: A factor analysis', Tourism, 60(1), 29-42.
Brida, J.G., Riaño, E. & Aguirre S.Z. (2011) 'Residents' attitudes and perceptions towards cruise tourism development: A case study of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)', Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(3), 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358411415153.
Brida, J. G. & Zapata, S. (2010) 'Economic impacts of cruise tourism: The case of Costa Rica', Anatolia, 21(2), 322-338.
Butler, R. W. (1980) 'The concept of a tourism area cycle of evolution: Implications for management resources', The Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5-16.
Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) (2018) '2018 Cruise Industry Outlook'. https://cruising.org/docs/default-source/research/clia-2018state-of-the-industry.pdf (Accessed on 17.09.2018).
Del Chiappa, G. (2012) 'Community integration: A case study of Costa Smeralda, Italy'. In: Fayos-Sola, E., Silva, J., & Jafari, J. (Eds.). (2012), Knowledge management in tourism: Policy and governance applications bridging tourism theory and practice. Emerald: Bingley, 243-263.
Del Chiappa, G. & Abbate, T. (2016) 'Island cruise tourism development: a resident's perspective in the context of Italy', Current Issues in Tourism, 19(13), 1372-1385. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.854751.
Del Chiappa, G. & Atzeni, M. (2015) 'Collaborative policy making: A community-based perspective in the context of Sardinia's Maddalena Archipelago, Italy'. In: Gursoy, E., Saayman, D., & Sotiriadis, M. (Eds.). Collaboration in Tourism Businesses and Destinations: A handbook. Emerald: Bingley, 57-74.
Del Chiappa, G., Atzeni, M. & Ghasemi, V. (2018a) 'Community-based collaborative tourism planning in islands: A cluster analysis in the context of Costa Smeralda', Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 8, 41-48.
Del Chiappa, G., Atzeni, M., J. Pung & M. Risitano (2018b) 'Residents' views on cruise tourism in Naples Profiles and insights from a Mediterranean home-port destination', European Journal of Tourism Research, 23, 71-85.
Del Chiappa, G., Lorenzo-Romero, C. & Gallarza, M. (2018c) 'Host community perceptions of cruise tourism in a homeport: A cluster analysis', Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 7,170-181. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.08.011.
Del Chiappa, G., Melis, G. & Atzeni, M. (2017) 'Turismo crocieristico e percezioni della popolazione residente: i risultati di un'analisi cluster', Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, 35(104), 135-154.
Delepouve H. (2019) The preservation of Venice and of its citizens can no longer wait. http://www.aivp.org/en/2019/12/19/the-preservation-ofvenice-and-of-its-citizens-can-no-longer-wait/(Accessed on 10.05.2019).
Diedrich, A. (2010) 'Cruise ship tourism in Belize : The implications of developing cruise ship tourism in an ecotourism destination', Ocean and Coastal Management, 53(5-6), 234-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ocecoaman.2010.04.003.
Faulkner, B. & Tideswell, C. (1997) 'A framework for monitoring community impacts of tourism', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(1), 3-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669589708667273.
Fredline, E. & Faulkner, B. (2000) 'Host community reactions: A cluster analysis', Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 763- 784.
Goodwin, H. (2017) 'The challenge of overtourism. Responsible Tourism Partnership'. https://haroldgoodwin.info/pubs/RTP'WP4Overtourism01'2017. pdf.
Hair, J. F. Black, W. C. Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2013) Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th edn, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.
Heeney, E. (2015) 'Connection and understanding: the basis of a positive mutual gaze between residents of a small island developing state and a community of multinational ocean cruisers', World Leisure Journal, 57(2), 118-130.
Hritz, N. & Cecil, A. (2008) 'Investigating the sustainability of cruise tourism: A case study of Key West', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 168-181.
Koens, K. Postma, A. & Papp, B. (2018) 'Is overtourism overused? Understanding the impact of tourism in a city context', Sustainability, 10(12), 4384.
Kerswill, M. & Mair, H. (2015) 'Big ships, small towns: Understanding cruise port development in Falmouth, Jamaica', Tourism in Marine Environments, 10(3-4), 189-199. doi:10.3727/154427315X14181438892766.
Klein, R. A. (2010) 'Cruises and bruises: safety, security and social issues on polar cruises' in M. Luck, P.T. Maher and E. Steward (ed.), Cruise Tourism in Polar Regions: Promoting Environmental and Social Sustainability, London: Earthscan Ltd, pp. 54-74.
Klein, R. A. (2011). 'Responsible cruise tourism: Issues of cruise tourism and sustainability', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 18(1), 107-116.
Koens, K., Postma, A. & Papp, B. (2018) 'Is overtourism overused? Understanding the impact of tourism in a city context', Sustainability, 10(12), 4384.
Jordan, E. J. & Vogt, C. A. (2017) 'Residents' perceptions of stress related to cruise tourism development', Tourism Planning and Development, 14(4), 527-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2017.1287123.
Marušić, A., Horak, S. & Tomljenović, R. (2008) 'The socio-economic impacts of cruise tourism: A case study of Croatian destinations', Tourism in Marine Environments, 5(2-3), 131-144.
McCaughey, R., Mao, I. & Dowling, R. (2018) 'Residents' perceptions towards cruise tourism development: the case of Esperance, Western Australia', Tourism Recreation Research, 43(3), 403-408.
Municipality of Venice (2019) Demographic statistics. https://www.comune. venezia.it/it/statistica (Accessed on 10.06.2019).
Nyaupane, G. P., Morais, D. B. & Dowler, L. (2006) 'The role of community involvement and number/type of visitors on tourism impacts: A controlled comparison of Annapurna, Nepal and Northwest Yunnan, China', Tourism Management, 27(6), 1373-1385.
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Papathanassis, A. (2017) 'Overtourism and anti-tourist sentiment: An exploratory analysis and discussion'. Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series, 17(2), 288-293.
Peručić, D. & Puh, B. (2012) 'Attitudes of citizens of Dubrovnik towards the impact of cruise tourism on Dubrovnik', Tourism and Hospitality Management, 18(2), 213-228.
Presenza, A., Del Chiappa, G. & Sheehan, L. (2013) 'Residents' engagement and local tourism governance in maturing beach destinations: Evidence from an Italian case study', Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 2(1), 22-30.
Pulina, M., Meleddu, M. & Del Chiappa, G. (2013) 'Residents choice probability and tourism development', Tourism Management Perspectives, 5, 57-67.
Sarantakou, E. & Terkenli, T. S. (2019) 'Non-institutionalized forms of tourism accommodation and overtourism impacts on the landscape: the case of Santorini, Greece', Tourism Planning and Development, 16(4), 411-433.
Seraphin, H., Sheeran, P. & Pilato, M. (2018) 'Overtourism and the fall of Venice as a destination', Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 9, 374-376.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.01.011.
Sharpley, R. (2014) 'Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research', Tourism Management, 42, 37-49.
Smith, M. K., Sziva, I. P. & Olt, G. (2019) 'Overtourism and resident resistance in budapest', Tourism Planning and Development, 16(4), 376-392. Stewart, E. J., Dawson, S. E. L., Johnston, M. E., Pearce, T. & Lemelin, H. (2013) 'Local-level responses to sea ice change and cruise tourism in Arctic Canada's Northwest Passage'. Polar Geography, 36, 142-162.
Stewart, E., Dawson, J. & Johnston, M. (2015) 'Risks and opportunities associated with change in the cruise tourism sector: community perspectives from Arctic Canada', The Polar Journal, 5(2), 403-427.
UNWTO (2018) Report on Tourism and Culture Synergies. Madrid: UNWTO. https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284419876 (Accessed on 17.09.2018).
Vargas-Sánchez, A., Plaza-Mejía, M. & Porras-Bueno, N. (2009) 'Understanding residents' attitudes toward the development of industrial tourism in a former mining community', Journal of Travel Research, 47(3), 373-387.
Venice Port authority (2019) The port in figures. https://www.port.venice.it/en/the-port-in-figures.html (Accessed on 10.06.2019).
Wall, G. (2020) 'From carrying capacity to overtourism: a perspective article', Tourism Review, 1(1), https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-08-2019-0356.