Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 1 Introduction

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3358

ISBN: 978-1-910158-36-4

Published: November 2015

Component type: chapter

Published in: Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-2678


The tourism and hospitality sector counts among the world’s largest in terms of business volume and employment. The United Nations World Tourism Organization suggests one in 11 jobs globally are to be found in tourism (UNWTO, 2013:78). Although precise employment figures in tourism are difficult to establish, as a heavily customer-facing, service-orientated sector it is in many of its operations highly labour intensive. Despite advances in technology, the possibilities of substituting labour by technology in tourism remain limited. For this reason tourism is frequently regarded favourably by policy makers, both in the developed and the developing world, in their attempts to drive down unemployment, particularly youth unemployment which in many countries is at crisis levels. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), for example, young people are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults.
Devadason (2007) explains that, as expected, the career ladder causality is most readily identifiable with the professional and managerial high income earners and yet he provides examples of low-income workers who also describe strategic thinking in their transitions. In fact, he makes reference to an individual working in hospitality who, starting from the bottom in what many people would describe as a low-skilled, menial job, had worked his way up to manager of a cappuccino bar and who now seeks to advance further. Square one causality is used by those whose work transitions have not demonstrated any form of progression or which do not feature as part of a larger career plan. This comprises both individuals who have remained in low-skilled work for some time as well as workers who were simply looking to earn some income before going on to further study. The final category of Setback stories relates to those who find themselves in a square one situation for an extended period of time and who then try to explain an absence of progress with reference to ‘lack of encouragement, confidence or the right networks to fulfil their aspirations’ (Devadason, 2007:712). The key point Devadason makes is that for some young adults, transitions into and out of employment, unemployment and education are woven into a narrative that is not necessarily negative. Indeed, it could be argued that we are entering an era where a lengthy period of time with one employer calls for an explanation in a tacit acknowledgement that this is no longer the norm. The extent to which young people will adapt to these labour market changes is yet to be fully understood, although it is likely tourism and hospitality employment will continue to feature in many young people’s early work experience.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Walmsley, 2015

Walmsley, A. (2015) "Chapter 1 Introduction" In: Walmsley, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-36-4-3358


Baum, T. (2006) Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure: An International Perspective, Thomson Learning.

Baum, T. (2012). Migrant workers in the international hotel industry, International Migration Papers. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Baum, T. (2013). International perspectives on women and work in hotels, catering and tourism, International Migration Papers. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Bynner, J. (2001) British youth transitions in comparative perspective. Journal of Youth Studies, 4 (1), 5-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260120028529

Devadason, R. (2007) Contructing coherence? Young adults' pursuit of meaning through multiple transitions between work, education and unemployment . Journal of Youth Studies, 10 (2), 203-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260600983650

Donovan, A. & Oddy, M. (1982) Psychological aspect of unemployment: an investigation into the emotional and social adjustment of school leavers. Journal of Adolescence, 5 (1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971(82)80015-8

Erickson, E. H. (1956) The problem of ego identity. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 4 56-221. https://doi.org/10.1177/000306515600400104

Eurostat (2014) Unemployment Statistics. Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Unemployment_statistics [Accessed 28.09.14].

Eurostat (2015) Unemployment Statistics. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Unemployment_statistics [Accessed 14.04.15].

Ferguson, L. (2011) Promoting gender equality and empowering women? Tourism and the third Millennium Development Goal. Current Issues in Tourism, 14 (3), 235-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.555522

Goos, M. & Manning, A. (2003). Lousy and lovely jobs: the rising polarization of work in Britain. Working paper. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science

Gottfredson, L. S. (1985) Role of self-concept in vocational theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32 (1), 159-162. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.32.1.159

Hammarström, A. & Janlert, U. (2002) Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems: results from a longitudinal study of school leavers. Journal of Epidemoiology and Community Health, 56 (8), 624-630. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.8.624

Hammer, T. (1993) Unemployment and mental health among young people: a longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 16 (4), 407-420. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1993.1033

Jahoda, M. S. (1982) Employment and Unemployment. A Social-psychological Analysis., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keep, E. (2012). Youth Transitions, the Labour Market and Entry into Employment: Some Reflections and Questions. SKOPE Research Paper No 108. Cardiff: SKOPE.

Ladkin, A. (2011) Exploring tourism labour. Annals of Tourism Research, 38 (3), 1135-1155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.010

Lee-Ross, D. & Pryce, J. (2010) Human Resources and Tourism: Skills, Culture and Industry, Oxford: Channel View Publications.

Pavis, S., Platt, S. & Hubbard, G. (2002) Youth employment, psychological health and the importance of person/environment fit: a case study of two Scottish rural towns. Advances in Mental Health, 1 (3), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5172/jamh.1.3.196

Riley, M., Ladkin, A. and Szivas, E. (2002) Tourism Employment. Analysis and Planning. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Roberts, K. (2012) The end of the long baby-boomer generations. Journal of Youth Studies, 15 (4), 479-497. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2012.663900

Schaffer, H. T. & Hargreaves, D. (1978) Young people in society: a research initiative by the SSRC. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 31 (91-94).

Sennett, R. (1998) The Corrosion of Character. The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism, London: W.W. Norton & Company.

Super, D. (1957) The Psychology of Careers, New York: Harper.

Symonds, W., Schwartz, R. & Ferguson, R. (2011). Pathways to prosperity: Meeting the challenge of preparing young Americans for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Education.

The Economist (2011). The jobless young: Left behind. Available at http://www.economist.com/node/21528614.

Tomaszewski, W. & Cebulla, A. (2014) Jumping off the track: comparing the experiences of first jobs of young people living in disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Britain. Journal of Youth Studies, 17 (8), 1029-1045. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2014.888407

UKCES (2011). The Youth Inquiry. Employers' perspectives on tackling youth unemployment. UK Commission for Employment and Skills.

UNWTO (2013). UNWTO Tourism Highlights. 2013 Edition. Madrid: UN World Tourism Organization.

Wadsworth, M. E. J., Montgomery, S. M. & Bartley, M. J. (1999) The persisting effect of unemployment on health and social well-being in men early in working life . Social Science & Medicine, 48 (10), 1491-1499. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00052-0

Warhurst, C., Nickson, D., Witz, A. & Cullen, A. M. (2000) Aesthetic labour in interactive service work: some case study evidence from the 'New Glasgow'. Service Industries Journal, 20 (3), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060000000029

World Economic Forum (2014). Outlook on the Global Agenda 2015. Geneva: World Economic Forum.


Chapter 1 Introduction [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Youth Employment in Tourism and Hospitality

Chapter 1 Introduction [Details]Price: £5.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details] Available as an inspection copyPrice: £34.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy