HOME | CHECKOUT | ABOUT | FAQ | CONTACT US |
 
Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:
email
password

Chapter 4 Optimising Low Carbon Mobility for Health and Equity

DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-64-7-3272

ISBN: 978-1-910158-64-7

Published: November 2016

Component type: chapter

Published in: Low Carbon Mobility Transitions

Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-64-7-2847

Abstract

In modern human habitats, the places people reside and the goods, services and people that contribute to their wellbeing are often separated geographically, and transport options confer a health benefit by enabling access. The notion that access for equitable human wellbeing is the purpose of a transport system challenges the current neoliberal transport policy discourse, dominated by a perceived need to move goods, capital and labour for economic growth. In this chapter, we focus on low carbon transitions for land transport in cities that can also promote wellbeing and improve social justice, especially in cities that are currently dominated by the use of private motor vehicles for most trips. We critically review the links between land transport and health using a broad public health framework, arguing that policy processes need to account for complex dynamics and model a wider range of future outcomes in analysis of costs and benefits. Further, that these processes must involve the communities whose transport patterns are expected to change. We provide two real world examples of these principles in action from Auckland, New Zealand, a city with 60 years of urban planning predicated on universal car ownership and use.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF

Contributors

  • Alex Macmillan, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand (Author)
  • Hamish Mackie, Mackie Research and Consulting, New Zealand (Author)

For the source title:

Cite as

Macmillan & Mackie, 2016

Macmillan, A. & Mackie, H. (2016) "Chapter 4 Optimising Low Carbon Mobility for Health and Equity" In: Hopkins, D. & Higham, J. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-64-7-3272

References

André, M. & Rapone, M. (2009). Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles. Atmospheric Environment, 43(5), 986-995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.013

Asbridge, M., Smart, R. G. & Mann, R. E. (2006). Can we prevent road rage? Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 7(2), 109-121. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838006286689

Banister, D. & Hickman, R. (2013). Transport futures: Thinking the unthinkable. Transport Policy, 29(0), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.07.005

Barton, H. & Grant, M. (2006). A health map for the local human habitat. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126(6), 252-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466424006070466

Battellino, H. (2009). Transport for the transport disadvantaged: A review of service delivery models in New South Wales. Transport Policy, 16(3), 123-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.006

Bhalla, K., Ezzati, M., Mahal, A., Salomon, J. & Reich, M. (2007). A risk-based method for modeling traffic fatalities. Risk Analysis, 27(1), 125-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00864.x

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Briggs, D., Abellan, J. J. & Fecht, D. (2008). Environmental inequity in England: Small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 1612-1629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.040

Camilloni, L., Farchi, S., Chini, F., Giorgi Rossi, P., Borgia, P. & Guasticchi, G. (2013). How socioeconomic status influences road traffic injuries and home injuries in Rome. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20(2), 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2012.692695

Charlton, S., Mackie, H., Baas, P., Hay, K., Menezes, M. & Dixon, C. (2010). Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 1989-1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.06.006

Charmaz, K. (2005). Grounded Theory in the 21st Century. Applications for Advancing Social Justice Studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed., 507-535). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Clifton, K. & Lucas, K. (2004). Examining the empirical evidence of transport inequality in the US and UK. In K. Lucas (Ed.), Running on Empty. Transport, social exclusion and environmental justice (15-36). Bristol: The Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861345707.003.0003

de Hartog, J. J., Boogaard, H., Nijland, H. & Hoek, G. (2010). Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8), 1109-1116. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901747

Dhar, D., Macmillan, A., Lindsay, G. & Woodward, A. (2009). Carbon pricing in New Zealand: implications for public health. New Zealand Medical Journal, 122(1290), 105-115.

Dora, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.). (2000). Transport, environment and health: World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe.

Eden, C. & Ackermann, F. (2004). Cognitive mapping expert views for policy analysis in the public sector. European Journal of Operational Research, 152(3), 615-630. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00061-4

Elvik, R. & Bjørnskau, T. (2016). Safety-in-numbers: A systematic review and meta- analysis of evidence. Safety Science. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.07.017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.07.017

Fahrig, L. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 487-515. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419

Fergusson, E., Terruhn, J., Gilbertson, A., Ovenden, K. & Wildish, B. (2016). Youth mobilities in the Southern Initiative, Auckland: transport practices and experiences of 15-24 year olds. Auckland.

Gibson, J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, Acting and Knowing (67-82): Lawrence Erlbaum.

Global Road Safety Facility and Evaluation. (2014). Transport for health: the global burden of disease from motorized road transport, Seattle, Washington (IHME) (The World Bank).

Gottholmseder, G., Nowotny, K., Pruckner, G. J. & Theurl, E. (2009). Stress perception and commuting. Health Economics, 18, 559-576. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1389

Hamer, M. & Chida, Y. (2008). Active commuting and cardiovascular risk: A meta-analytic review. Preventive Medicine, 46(1), 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.006

HEI Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution [HEI Panel]. (2010). Traffic-related air pollution: A critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects. Boston: Health Effects Institute.

Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polasky, S. & Tiffany, D. (2006). Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(30), 11206-11210. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604600103

Hosking, J., Ameratunga, S., Exeter, D., Stewart, J. & Bell, A. (2013). Ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical inequalities in road traffic injury rates in the Auckland region. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(2), 162-167. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12034

Hoskins, R. (2008). 'Our Faces in our Places': Cultural Landscapes – Mäori and the Urban Environment. In G. Fougere (Ed.), Re-thinking Urban Environments and Health. Wellington: Public Health Advisory Committee.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2016). GBD Data Visualizations. Retrieved 11 June 2016, from University of Washington, http://www.healthdata.org/gbd/data-visualizations.

Jacobson, J. O., Hengartner, N. W. & Louis, T. A. (2005). Inequity measures for evaluations of environmental justice: a case study of close proximity to highways in New York City. Environment and Planning A, 37(1), 21-43. https://doi.org/10.1068/a36225

Jantunen, M., Kollanus, V., Leino, O., Happonen, E., Lim, T.-A. & Conrad, A. (2011). European perspectives on Environmental Burden of Disease: Estimates for nine stressors in six countries. In O. Hänninen & A. Knol (Eds.), EBoDE Project. Helsinki, Finland: World Health Organisation Europe.

Letherby, G. & Reynolds, G. (2003). Making connections: The relationship between train travel and the processes of work and leisure. Sociological Research Online, 8(3), 1.1-6.10. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.821

Lim, C., Kim, J., Hong, J. & Lee, S. (2006). The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(4), 2037-2042. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2266539

Lucas, K. (2011). Driving to the breadline. In K. Lucas, E. Blumenberg & R. Weinberger (Eds.), Auto Motives: Understanding Car Use Behaviours (209-224). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. https://doi.org/10.1108/9780857242341-011

Lucas, K., Tyler, S. & Christodoulou, G. (2009). Assessing the 'value' of new transport initiatives in deprived neighbourhoods in the UK. Transport Policy, 16(3), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.004

Lund, H. (2003). Testing the claims of new urbanism: Local access, pedestrian travel, and neighboring behaviours. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(4), 414-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360308976328

Mackie, H. W., Charlton, S. G., Baas, P. H. & Villasenor, P. C. (2012). Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, 742-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.06.026

Macmillan, A., Connor, J., Witten, K., Kearns, A., Rees, D. & Woodward, A. (2014). The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(4). https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250

Marmot, M. & Bell, R. (2012). Fair society, healthy lives. Public Health, 126, Supplement 1, S4-S10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.05.014

Martin, A., Panter, J., Suhrcke, M. & Ogilvie, D. (2015). Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69(8), 753-761. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2014-205211

Mees, P. & Dodson, J. (2006). Backtracking Auckland: bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning. In J. Dodson (Ed.), Urban Research Program Issues Papers. Brisbane: Griffith University.

Mindell, J., Rutter, H. & Watkins, S. (2011). Urban Transportation and Human Health. In J. O. Nriagu (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (578-589). Burlington: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-52272-6.00320-2

Ministry for the Environment. (2016). New Zealand's Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2014. Wellington: New Zealand Government Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/climate-change/new-zealand-greenhouse-gas-inventory-1990-2014.

Ministry of Health. (2015). Understanding excess body weight: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Mokhtarian, P. L. & Chen, C. (2004). TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 38(9-10), 643-675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2003.12.004

Ogilvie, D., Foster, C. E., Rothnie, H., Cavill, N., Hamilton, V., Fitzsimons, C. F. & Mutrie, N. (2007). Interventions to promote walking: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 334, 1204-1214. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39198.722720.BE

Parkin, J., Ryley, T. J. & Jones, T. (2007). Barriers to cycling: an exploration of quantitative analysis Civil Engineering: Book Chapters.

Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., Grove, J. M., Nilon, C. H., Pouyat, R. V., Zipperer, W. C. & Costanza, R. (2001). Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 127-157. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114012

Reardon, L. & Abdallah, S. (2013). Well-being and transport: Taking stock and looking forward. Transport Reviews, 33(6), 634-657. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2013.837117

Richardson, G. P. (2011). Reflections on the foundations of system dynamics. System Dynamics Review, 27(3), 219-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.462

Rissel, C., Curac, N., Greenaway, M.,& Bauman, A. (2012). Physical activity associated with public transport use—a review and modelling of potential benefits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(7), 2454-2478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9072454

Schwanen, T. (2011). Car use and gender: The case of dual-earner families in Utrecht, The Netherlands. In K. Lucas, E. Blumenberg & R. Weinberger (Eds.), Auto Motives. Understanding Car Use Behaviours (pp. 151-171). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. https://doi.org/10.1108/9780857242341-008

Spellerberg, I. F. (1998). Ecological effects of roads and traffic: A literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7(5), 317-333. https://doi.org/10.2307/2997681

Stanley, J. & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2009). The usefulness of social exclusion to inform social policy in transport. Transport Policy, 16(3), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.003

Tainio, M., de Nazelle, A. J., Götschi, T., Kahlmeier, S., Rojas-Rueda, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. & Woodcock, J. (2016). Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking? Preventive Medicine, 87, 233-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.002

Theeuwes, J. & Godthelp, H. (1995). Self-explaining roads. Safety Science, 19(2-3), 217-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-7535(94)00022-U

Tonne, C., Beevers, S., Armstrong, B., Kelly, F. & Wilkinson, P. (2008). Air pollution and mortality benefits of the London Congestion Charge: spatial and socioeconomic inequalities. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(9), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2007.036533

Trombulak, S. C. & Frissell, C. A. (2000). Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology, 14(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99084.x

Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kaźmierczak, A., Niemela, J. & James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81(3), 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001

United Nations, (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. Highlights, (ST/ESA/SER.A/352). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations: New York. Available from: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf.

van Vliet, P. & Schermers, G. (2000). Sustainable safety: A new approach for road safety in the Netherlands. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Traffic Research Centre.

Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W. & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351

Watts, N., Adger, W. N., Agnolucci, P., Blackstock, J., Byass, P., Cai, W., Chaytor, S., Colbourn, T., Collins, M., Cooper, A., Cox, P.M., Depledge, J., Drummond, P., Ekins, P., Galaz, V., Grace, D., Graham, H., Grubb, M., Haines, A., Hamilton, I., Hunter, A., Jiang, X., Li, M., Kelman, I., Liang, L., Lott, M., Lowe, R., Luo, Y., Mace, G., Maslin, M., Nilsson, M., Oreszczyn, T., Pye, S., Quinn, T., Svensdotter, M., Venevsky, S., Warner, K., Xu, B., Yang, J., Yin, Y., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Gong, P., Montgomery, H. & Costello, A. (2015). Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. The Lancet, 370(9592), 1078-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60854-6

Weller, G., Schlag, B., Friedel, T. & Rammin, C. (2008). Behaviourally relevant road categorisation: A step towards self-explaining rural roads. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(4), 1581-1588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.04.009

Woodcock, J., Banister, D., Edwards, P., Prentice, A. M. & Roberts, I. (2007). Energy and transport. The Lancet, 370(9592), 1078-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61254-9

Woodcock, J., Franco, O. H., Orsini, N. & Roberts, I. (2011). Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(1), 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyq104

World Health Organisation. (1948). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organisation as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organisation, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.

World health Organisation. (2010). Health in the green economy. Co-benefits to health of climate change mitigation: Transport Sector. Preliminary findings - initial review. Geneva: WHO Public Health & Environment Cluster (HSE).

World Health Organisation. (2015). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015. Geneva.

World Resources Institute. (2014). Climate Analysis Indicators Tool: WRI's Climate Data Explorer. Historical Emissions 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2016, from World Resources Institute http://cait2.wri.org/.

Available

Published in Low Carbon Mobility Transitions

Hardback format [Details]Price: £85.00Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy