Chapter 3 Crisis communication
Published: August 2020
Component type: chapter
Published in: COVID-19 and Travel
Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635703-4387
An advertising campaign from Marketing Greece during the COVID-19 pandemic urged international travelers to “#staysafe” during the difficult times, while images of the idyllic Greek Islands allowed viewers to continue to dream and plan an escape to the stunningly beautiful country of Greece. Clever, one might think, sharing the message with the international tourist that better days are surely coming, while urging them to stay safe in the meantime. Yet some suggested that promoting tourism during the pandemic was borderline irresponsible (Spinks, 2020). In fact, quite a few destinations even campaigned against tourism – Visit Wales, for example, urged travelers to stay away. How should the travel industry have responded to this crisis? What was the correct tone of message? And what would persuade travelers to venture out of their homes once the coast was clear? This chapter will explore such issues, in addition to examining internal communications strategies employed by the industry during the pandemic.
- Dr Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina, USA (Author)
For the source title:
- Dr Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina, USA (Author)
Hudson, D.S. (2020) "Chapter 3 Crisis communication" In: Hudson, D.S. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635703-4426
Abel, A. (2020). Hotels and travel in Portugal are getting safer from the coronavirus. Forbes, 6 May. https://www.forbes.com/sites/annabel/2020/05/06/heres-how-hotels- and-travel-in-portugal-are-getting-safer-from-covid-19/#2e3dad092bb2
Adgate, B. (2019). When a recession comes, don't stop advertising. Forbes, 5 September. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bradadgate/2019/09/05/ when-a-recession-comes-dont-stop-advertising/#3ce95afc4608
Avraham, E. (2015). Destination image repair during crisis: Attracting tourism during the Arab Spring uprisings. Tourism Management, 47, 224-232.
Avraham, E. & Ketter, E. (2008). Media Strategies for Marketing Places in Crisis. Improving the image of cities, countries and tourist destinations. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Avraham, E. & Ketter, E. (2016). Marketing Tourism for Developing Countries: Battling stereotypes and crises in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. London: Palgrave-McMillan.
Barnes, N.G. & Fitzgibbons, D. (1991). Is cause related marketing in your future? Business Forum, 16(4), 20.
Benoit, W.L. (1995). Accounts, Excuses and Apologies: A theory of image restoration strategies. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Benoit, W.L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-86.
Bisby, A. (2020). How the travel industry is keeping tourists engaged while waiting to welcome them again. The Globe & Mail, 31 March. www.theglobeandmail.com/life/travel/article-how-the-travel-industry-is-keeping-tourists-engaged-while-waiting-to/
Cheng, Y. (2018). How social media is changing crisis communication strategies: Evidence from the updated literature. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 26, 58-68.
Coombs, W.T. (1999). Information and compassion in crisis responses: A test of their effects. Journal of Public Relations Research, 11(2), 125-42.
Coombs, W.T. (2018). Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, managing and responding. California: Sage.
DestinationThink (2020). COVID-19 pandemic needs rational leadership from tourism destinations. https://destinationthink.com/blog/COVID-19-pandemic -rational-leadership-tourism-destinations/
Doyle, A. (2020). Video brings Auckland to the world during lockdown. Recommend Magazine, 20 April. https://www.recommend.com/amazingdaysahead/video-brings-auckland-world-lockdown/
Eriksson, M. (2018). Lessons for crisis communication on social media: A systematic review of what research tells the practice. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(5), 526-551.
Gertner, D. & Kotler, P. (2004). How can a place correct a negative image? Place, Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(2), 50-57.
Goncalves, C. (2020). "Don't cancel, postpone," Portugal urges tourists in voucher scheme. Reuters, 23 April. www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-portugal-touri...el-postpone-portugal-urges-tourists-in-voucher-scheme-idUSKCN2252OT
Herald Scotland (2020). Scottish tourism campaign a massive hit. Herald Scotland Online, 8 May. https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/18437396.scottish-tourism-campaign-massive-hit/
Hoeffler, S. & Keller, K.L. (2002). Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 84.
Huang, N. (2020). Crisis planning for hotels: Best practices in communication, revenue management, and marketing. Hospitality Net, 4 March. https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4097317.html
Huang, Y.-H. & Su, S.-H. (2009). Determinants of consistent, timely and active responses in corporate crises. Public Relations Review, 35(1), 7-17.
Hudson, S. (2008). Tourism and Hospitality Marketing: A Global Perspective. London: Sage.
Hudson, S. (2016). Let the journey begin (again). The branding of Myanmar. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 5(4), 305-313.
Influencer Marketing (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Marketing & Ad Spend Impact: Report + Statistics. https://influencermarketinghub.com/coronavirus-marketing-ad-spend-report/
Jozuka, E. (2020). Kyoto launches an 'empty tourism' campaign amid coronavirus outbreak. CNNI, 18 February. https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/news/kyoto-launches-an-empty-tourism-campaign-amid-coronavirus-outbreak/ ar-BB106A2h
Kessler, M. (2020). 6 ways to manage reputation during coronavirus & other crises. Hospitality Net, 5 March. https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4097310.html
Ketter, E. & Avraham, E. (2012). The social revolution of tourism marketing: The growing power of users in social media tourism campaigns. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(4), 285-294.
LVCVA (2020). Las Vegas thanks hospitality workers and honors the spirit of travel. LVCVA Press Release, 1 May. https://press.lvcva.com/news-releases/all/las-vegas-thanks-hospitality-workers-and-honors-the-spirit-of-travel/s/ d4b43220-27b2-4b58-b894-06447d2c7c3d
Mair, J., Ritchie B.W. & Walters G. (2016). Towards a research agenda for post-disaster and post-crisis recovery strategies for tourist destinations: A narrative review. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(1), 1-26.
Mazzei, A. & Ravazzani, S. (2011). Manager-employee communication during a crisis: The missing link. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(3), 243-254.
Morrison, A.M. (2002) Hospitality and Travel Marketing, 3rd edn. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning.
O'Hair, D., Friedrich, G.W., Wiemann, J.M. & Wiemann, M.O. (1995). Competent Communication. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.
Paul, M. (2020). WTTC unveils 'Together in Travel' campaign. Travel Daily, 21 April. https://www.traveldailymedia.com/wttc-unveils-together-in-travel-campaign/
PubMatic (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on global ad spend. PubMatic, 15 April. https://pubmatic.com/COVID-19/
Sapient, P. (2020). Preparing for a post COVID-19 world: 4 ways travel brands can learn from past events. Skift, 9 April. https://skift.com/2020/04/09/preparing-post-COVID-19-world-travel-brands-learn-past-events/
Schaal, D. (2020). How travel brands are approaching TV advertising now. Skift, 27 March. https://skift.com/2020/03/27/how-travel-brands-are-approaching-tv-advertising-now/
Spinks, R. (2020). Promoting tourism in the time of Coronavirus is a no-win. Skift. 5 March. https://skift.com/2020/03/05/promoting- tourism-in-the-time-of-coronavirus-is-a-no-win/
Strong, K.C., Ringer, R.C. & Taylor, S.A. (2001). The rules of stakeholder satisfaction (timeliness, honesty, empathy). Journal of Business Ethics, 32(3), 219-30.
Tinubu, S. (2020). 5 things advertisers should consider amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Entrepreneur, 29 April. https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/348526
Ulmer, R.R. & Sellnow, T.L. (2000). Consistent questions of ambiguity in organizational crisis: Jack in the Box as a case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 25, 143-55.
Walters, G. & Mair, J. (2012). The effectiveness of post-disaster recovery marketing messages - the case of the 2009 Australian Bushfires. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(1), 87-103.