Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 5 The economic, social and environmental impacts of COVID 19

DOI: 10.23912/9781911635703-4429

ISBN: 9781911635703

Published: August 2020

Component type: chapter

Published in: COVID-19 and Travel

Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635703-4387


As mentioned in Chapter 1, the tourism and hospitality sector was particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 crisis, especially in destinations like Aruba that were so dependent on tourism. This vulnerability has already been highlighted throughout the book, but Chapter 5 will look in more detail at the economic, social and environmental impacts of COVID-19. Most of the studies to date about the consequences of the pandemic have emphasized the economic impacts, so a synopsis of those studies will be provided. However, there have been significant social and environmental impacts from the crisis that have affected the travel sector, so these are also discussed in this chapter.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


  • Dr Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina, USA (Author)

For the source title:

  • Dr Simon Hudson, University of South Carolina, USA (Author)

Cite as

Hudson, 2020

Hudson, D.S. (2020) "Chapter 5 The economic, social and environmental impacts of COVID 19" In: Hudson, D.S. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635703-4429


AHLA (2020). COVID-19's Impact on the Hotel Industry. American Hotel & Lodging Association. https://www.ahla.com/covid-19s-impact-hotel-industry

Armstrong, M. (2020). Venice considers a new tourism model after COVID-19 lockdown. Euronews, 21 April. https://www.euronews.com/2020/04/19/ venice-considers-a-new-tourism-model-after-covid-19-lockdown

Bernard, B.A. (2020). Caribbean tourism has been decimated by COVID-19. But the private sector can cushion the blow. World Economic Forum, 7 May. https://www. weforum.org/agenda/2020/05/caribbean-tourism-has-been-decimated-by-covid-19-but-the-private-sector-can-cushion-the-blow/

BBC News (2020a). Coronavirus: Stratford-upon-Avon's tourism trade hit hard by lockdown. BBC News, 3 May. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england- coventry-warwickshire-52446679?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.com/news/business&link_location=live-reporting-story

BBC News (2020b). Coronavirus: Money worries in pandemic drive surge in anxiety. BBC News, 4 May. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-52527135

BBC Business (2020). Coronavirus: World Bank warns 60m at risk of 'extreme poverty'. BBC Business News, 20 May. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52733706

Board of Innovation (2020). The Winners of the Low Touch Economy. https://www.boardofinnovation.com/low-touch-economy/

Bongarra, F. (2020). Italy mulls 'health passport' to help tourism recover from COVI19 pandemic. Arab News, 30 April. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1667576/world

Boothbay Register (2020). #MyTravelPledge campaign to benefit COVID-19 'frontliners'. Boothbay Register, 7 May. https://www.boothbayregister.com/article/ mytravelpledge-campaign-benefit-covid-19-frontliners/133734

Bryant, M. (2020). Cycling 'explosion': Coronavirus fuels surge in US bike ridership. The Guardian, 13 May. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/may/13/coronavirus-cycling-bikes-american-boom

Condon, O. (2020). Economy in Banff has 'collapsed' as COVID-19 wipes out tourism industry. Calgary Herald, 26 April. https://calgaryherald.com/news/economy-in-banff-has-collapsed-as-covid-19-effectively-eliminates-tourism-industry/

Doescher, T. (2020). COVID-19 rocks hospitality industry as economy sheds 701,000 jobs. The Heritage Foundation, 3 April. https://www.heritage.org/jobs-and-labor/commentary/covid-19-rocks-hospitality-industry-economy-sheds-701000-jobs

Doxey, C.V. (1976). When enough's enough: The natives are restless in Old Niagara. Heritage Canada, 2(2), 26-27.

Ellis, C. (2020). Banff restaurants gearing up for safe reopening. Rocky Mountain Outlook, 14 May, 6.

Financial Times (2020). The virus fight opens up a climate opportunity. Financial Times Editorial Board, 15 May. www.ft.com/content/eb683e52-95d0-11ea-abcd-371e24b679ed

Flood, A. (2020). Oxford dictionary revised to record linguistic impact of Covid-19. The Guardian, 15 April. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/apr/15/oxford-dictionary-revised-to-record-linguistic-impact-of-covid-19

Gardiner, B. (2020). Pollution made COVID-19 worse. Now, lockdowns are clearing the air. National Geographic, 8 April. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/04/pollution-made-the-pandemic-worse-but-lockdowns-clean-the-sky/

Gerken, T. (2020). Coronavirus: Kind Canadians start 'caremongering' trend. BBC News, 16 March. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51915723

Ghosh, I. (2020). Zoom is now worth more than the 7 biggest airlines. Visual Capitalist, 15 May. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/zoom-boom-biggest-airlines/

Gibbens, S. (2020). Will the sustainable travel movement survive coronavirus? National Geographic, 21 April. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/2020/04/will-sustainable-travel-survive-coronavirus/

Gibson, J. & Dryden, J. (2020). 'It was mandatory': Calgary Stampede cancelled for 1st time in almost a century due to pandemic. CBC, 23 April. https://www.cbc.ca/news/ canada/calgary/calgary-stampede-covid-19-2020-announcement-1.5542680

Hatton, C. (2020). Coronavirus: Thai elephants face starvation as tourism collapses. BBC News, 31 March. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52110551

Hepple, J. (2020). What Will Aruba's Tourism Industry Look Like in the Future? Unpublished report from the University of Aruba.

Henley, J. (2020). Covid 19 throws Europe's tourism industry into chaos. The Guardian, 2 May. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/02/covid-19-throws-europes-tourism-industry-into-chaos

Holland, M. (2020). With safari tourism on hold, locals and animals are at risk. Conde Nast Traveler, 29 April. https://www.cntraveler.com/story/with-safari-tourism-on-hold-locals-and-animals-are-at-risk

Hudson, S. & Hudson, L.J. (2017). Marketing for Tourism, Hospitality, and Events. Sage, London.

Jadah, T. (2020). New campaign offers healthcare workers free vacations once the pandemic ends. Daily Hive, 17 April. https://dailyhive.com/mapped/casa-higueras-campaign-healthcare-workers

Janczewski, M. (2020). Aruba announces new "Aruba Health & Happiness Code" certification program. Visit Aruba News, 20 May. https://www.visitaruba.com/news/general/aruba-announces-new-aruba-health-happiness-code-certification-program/

Jones, K. (2020). The pandemic economy: What are shoppers buying online during COVID-19? Visual Capitalist, 8 April. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/shoppers-buying-online-ecommerce-covid-19/

Kelland, K. (2020). UN warns of global mental health crisis due to COVID-19 pandemic. World Economic Forum, 14 May. https://www.weforum.org/ agenda/2020/05/united-nations-global-mental-health-crisis-covid19-pandemic

Kirkman, A. (2020). The coronavirus economy: How my job as chief of one of Italy's top tourism companies has changed. Fortune, 5 April. https://fortune.com/2020/04/05/coronavirus-italy-tourism-jobs-covid-19-business-impact/

Krader, K. (2020). Famed designer draws up plan to save restaurants through outdoor dining. Bloomberg, 18 May. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-05-18/david-rockwell-draws-up-plans-for-outdoor-dining-in-covid-19-era

Martin, G. (2020). Post-pandemic travel: Spain, the second most-visited country on earth, weighs a fraught revival of its $200-billion tourism sector by the end of 2020. Forbes, 20 April. https://www.forbes.com/sites/guymartin/2020/04/20/post- pandemic-travel-spain-the-second-most-visited-country-on-earth-weighs-a-fraught-revival-of-its-200-billion-tourism-sector-by-the-end-of-2020/#4e7c24463a41

McCarthy, N. (2020a). US travel industry set to lose over $500 billion in 2020. Statistica, 21 April. https://www.statista.com/chart/21443/direct-losses-for-the-us-travel-industry-due-to-coronavirus/

McCarthy, N. (2020b). Why Americans wanted to work remotely pre-coronavirus. Statistica, 30 April. www.statista.com/chart/21563/top-reasons-for-remote-working/

Morath, E. (2020). Coronavirus relief often pays workers more than work. Wall Street Journal, 28 April. https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-relief-often-pays-workers-more-than-work-11588066200

Morgan, J. (2020). COVID-19 is an unmissable chance to put people and the planet first. World Economic Forum, 24 April. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/covid19-coronavirus-climate-jennifer-morgan-greenpeace/

Nadeau, B.L. (2020). Deserted Venice contemplates a future without tourist hordes after Covid-19. CNN News, 16 May. https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/venice-future-covid-19/index.html

Najum, J. (2020). A pandemic quiets mariachis and tourism in Mexico City. National Geographic, 15 April. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/2020/04/coronavirus-mexico-city-and-mariachis-fight-to-survive-the-covid/

Pachelli, N. (2020). It's beyond frustrating: Tensions peak. The Guardian, 20 April. www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/20/hawaii-coronavirus-covid-19-tourists

Pesce, N.L. (2020). 1 in 4 restaurants won't reopen after the coronavirus pandemic, OpenTable CEO warns. Market Watch, 15 May. https://www.marketwatch.com/ story/1-in-4-restaurants-wont-reopen-after-the-coronavirus-pandemic-opentable-ceo-warns-2020-05-15

Poon Tip, B. (2020). Unlearn. The Year the Earth Stood Still. https://unlearn.travel

Quinn, C. (2020). The tourism industry is in trouble. These countries will suffer the most. Foreign Policy, 1 April. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/01/coronavirus-tourism-industry-worst-hit-countries-infographic/

QUO (2020). Podcasts on the Future of Travel. https://www.quo-global.com/podcasts/

Rice, D. (2020). Coronavirus lockdowns have caused a whopping 17% drop in global carbon emissions. USA Today, 19 May. www.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2020/05/19/coronavirus-has-caused-whopping-17-drop-global-carbon-emissions/5219885002/

Rumball, E. (2020). Aruba allowing couples to book events with pandemic postponement policy. The Daily Hive, 14 May. https://dailyhive.com/mapped/aruba-pandemic-postponement-policy

Scott, C.L. & Pleven, L. (2020). Summer businesses fear coronavirus lockdown means a lost season. Wall Street Journal, 18 April. https://www.wsj.com/articles/summer-will-come-crowds-are-still-a-maybe-11587182405

ScottAsia Communications (2020). Ecotourists staying away put wildlife in danger in Cambodia. Journal des Palaces, 19 May. https://www.journaldespalaces.com/en/news-57983-ECOTOURISTS-STAYING-AWAY-PUT-WILDLIFE-IN-DANGER-ICAMBODIA.html

Shaw, D. (2020). Coronavirus: Tinder boss says 'dramatic' changes to dating. BBC News, 21 May. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52743454

Stokel-Walker, C. (2020). We'll be less touchy-feely and far more wary, but the transition will feel strange. BBC News, 19 April. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200429-will-personal-contact-change-due-to-coronavirus

Stotnick, D. (2020). Some of the world's airlines could go bankrupt because of the COVID-19 crisis. Business Insider, 12 May. https://www.businessinsider.com/ coronavirus-airlines-that-failed-bankrupt-covid19-pandemic-2020-3

Taylor, J. (2020). 'Completely dropped off ': Australia's tourism industry braces for coronavirus crisis. The Guardian, 11 February. https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2020/feb/11/completely-dropped-off-australias-tourism-industry-braces-for-coronavirus-crisis

Wall, G. & Mathieson, A. (2006) Tourism. Change, Impacts and Opportunities. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.

Wilson, B. (2020). There is plenty of food to go round, which means there is no need for panic buying. But who said our relationship with food was fully rational? The Guardian, 3 April. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2020/apr/03/off-our-trolleys-what-stockpiling-in-the-coronavirus-crisis-reveals-about-us

Wood, C. (2020). The coronavirus pandemic has hit the Greek tourism sector hard with 65% of hoteliers saying they could face bankruptcy. Business Insider, 19 April. https://www.businessinsider.com/greek-hoteliers-think-bankruptcy-likely-amid-coronavirus-crisis-2020-4

World Travel and Tourism Council (2020). Economic Impact Report, 28 April. https://wttc.org/Research/Economic-Impact

Zheng, Y., Goh, E. & Wen, J. (2020). The effects of misleading media reports about COVID-19 on Chinese tourists' mental health: a perspective article. Anatolia, 31(2), 337-340.



Published in COVID-19 and Travel

Paperback format [Details]Price: £34.99Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy