Chapter 3 Social interaction in co creating the tourist experience An exploratory study of Chinese visitors to Japan
Published: April 2021
Component type: chapter
Published in: Sustainable and Collaborative Tourism in a Digital World
Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635765-4477
Tourists are increasingly looking for experiences that allow them to actively participate (Campos et al., 2015), and the role of the tourist as a co-creator, or even the sole creator, of the tourism experience is becoming widely recognized among tourism scholars and practitioners (Binkhorst & Dekker, 2009; Rihova et al., 2013; Campos et al., 2015). Some even regard active value co-creation as the most important aspect of the tourism experience (e.g.Boswijk, Thijssen & Peelen, 2007; Binkhorst & Dekker, 2009). Destinations may be viewed as a space in which tourists co-create their own memorable experiences through social and other interactions (Morgan & Xu, 2009). Following this conceptualization, social interaction among participants is an essential condition for value co-creation. Categories of social actors participating in tourism value co-creation include service providers (e.g., Salvado, 2011; Minkiewicz, Evans & Bridson, 2014), the local community (e.g., Azevedo, 2009; Richards, 2010), and other tourists (e.g., Rihova et al., 2013, 2015; Reichenberger, 2017). Surprisingly perhaps, previous tourism studies have tended to take social interactions among actors in tourism for granted, and have often treated them as inherently positive. Hence, we feel that an investigation of these basic assumptions of positive social interactions and how they are perceived by tourists is warranted. Furthermore, tourists’ perceptions and attitudes towards different types of on-site social actors may lead to different forms of value co-creation. We therefore need to study from the perspective of the tourist how different types of social actors participate in the tourism value co-creation process, and what is the relative impact of each type of social actor on this process.
- Xing Han, Otaru University of Commerce (Author)
- Carolus L.C. Praet, Otaru University of Commerce (Author)
- Liyong Wang, Otaru University of Commerce (Author)
For the source title:
- Alain Decrop, University of Namur (Editor)
- Antónia Correia, University of Algarve (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6707-8289
- Alan Fyall, University of Central Florida (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0058-2410
- Metin Kozak, Dokuz Eylul University (Editor)
Han, Praet & Wang, 2021
Han, X., Praet, C.L. & Wang, L. (2021) "Chapter 3 Social interaction in co creating the tourist experience An exploratory study of Chinese visitors to Japan" In: Decrop, A., Correia, A., Fyall, A. & Kozak, M. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635765-4845
Ap, J. & Wong, K. K. F. (2001) 'Case study on tour guiding: Professionalism, issues and problems', Tourism Management, 22 (5), 551-563.
Arnould, E. & Price, L. (1993) 'River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter', Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (1), 24-45.
Azevedo, A. (2009) 'Designing unique and memorable experiences: Cocreation and the "surprise" factor', paper presented at the III Congresso Internacional de Turismo de Leiria e Oeste - 2009, Leiria, Portugal.
Bimonte, S. & Punzo, L. F. (2016) 'Tourist development and host-guest interaction: An economic exchange theory', Annals of Tourism Research, 58, 128-139.
Binkhorst, E. & Dekker, T. D. (2009) 'Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research', Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 18 (2-3), 311-327.
Boswijk, A., Thijssen, T. & Peelen, E. (2007) The Experience Economy, A New Perspective, Amsterdam: Pearson Education Benelux.
Brown, S. (2005) 'Travelling with a purpose: Understanding the motives and benefits of volunteer vacationers', Current Issues in Tourism, 8 (6), 479-496.
Campos, A. C., Mendes, J., do Valle, P. O. & Scott, N. (2015) 'Co-creation of tourist experiences: A literature review', Current Issues in Tourism, 21 (4), 369-400.
de Rojas, C. & Camarero, C. (2008) 'Visitors' experience, mood and satisfaction in a heritage context: Evidence from an interpretation center', Tourism Management, 29 (3), 525-537.
Fan, D. X. F., Qiu, H., Jenkins, C. L. & Lin, P. M. C. (2016) 'Does social contact lessen perceived cultural distance? Evidence from tourist-host social contact', Annals of Tourism Research, 61, 223-225.
Greenblat, C. S. & Gagnon, J. H. (1983) 'Temporary strangers: Travel and tourism from a sociological perspective', Sociological Perspectives, 26 (1), 89-110.
Grove, S. J. & Fisk, R. P. (1997) 'The impact of other customers on service experiences: A critical incident examination of "getting along"', Journal of Retailing, 73 (1), 63-85.
Gursoy, D., Jurowski, C. & Uysal, M. (2002) 'Resident attitudes: A structural modeling approach', Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (1), 79-105.
Harris, A. (2013) 'Like me or like me? The role of compatibility and similarity in backpacker networks', paper presented at the 19th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Annual Conference, 1-4 July, Bangkok, Thailand.
Hemmington, N. (2007) 'From service to experience: Understanding and defining the hospitality business', The Service Industries Journal, 27 (6), 747-755.
Huang, J. & Hsu, C. H. (2009) 'Interaction among fellow cruise passengers: Diverse experiences and impacts', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26 (5-6), 547-567.
Huang, J. & Hsu, C. H. (2010) 'The impact of customer-to-customer interaction on cruise experience and vacation satisfaction', Journal of Travel Research, 49 (1), 79-92.
Huang, S. S. & Hsu, C. H. (2005) 'Mainland Chinese residents' perceptions and motivations of visiting Hong Kong: Evidence from focus group interviews', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 10 (2), 191-205.
Ji, M., Li, M. & Hsu, C. H. C. (2016) 'Emotional encounters of Chinese tourists to Japan', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33 (5), 645-657.
Kim, J. H. (2010) 'Determining the factors affecting the memorable nature of travel experiences', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 27 (8), 780-796.
Kim, N. & Lee, M. (2012) 'Other customers in a service encounter: Examining the effect in a restaurant setting', Journal of Services Marketing, 26 (1), 27-40.
Lashley, C. (2008) 'Marketing hospitality and tourism experiences', in H. Oh and A. Pizam (eds.), Handbook of Hospitality Marketing Management, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 3-31.
Lazarevski, K. & Dolnicar, S. (2008) 'Tourist segment compatibility', paper presented at the conference Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC), 1-3 December, Sydney.
Li, X. (Robert), Meng, F., Uysal, M. & Mihalik, B. (2013) 'Understanding China's long-haul outbound travel market: An overlapped segmentation approach', Journal of Business Research, 66 (6), 786-793.
Li, X. & Petrick, J. F. (2008) 'Tourism marketing in an era of paradigm shift', Journal of Travel Research, 46 (3), 235-244.
Li, M., Zhang, H., Mao, I., & Deng, C. (2011) 'Segmenting Chinese outbound tourists by perceived constraints', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 28 (6), 629-643.
Lin, Z., Chen, Y. & Filieri, R. (2017) 'Resident-tourist value co-creation: The role of residents' perceived tourism impacts and life satisfaction', Tourism Management, 61, 436-442.
Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L. & O'Brien, M. (2007) 'Competing through service: Insights from service-dominant logic', Journal of Retailing, 83 (1), 5-18.
Maunier, C. & Camelis, C. (2013) 'Toward an identification of elements contributing to satisfaction with the tourism experience', Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19 (1), 19-39.
McColl-Kennedy, J. R. & Tombs, A. (2011) 'When customer value co-creation diminishes value for other customers deliberately or inadvertently', paper presented at the conference Naples Forum on Service: Service Dominant Logic, Network & System Theory and Service Science, 15-17 June, Capri.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2nd edn, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Minkiewicz, J., Evans, J. & Bridson, K. (2014) 'How do consumers co-create their experiences? An exploration in the heritage sector', Journal of Marketing Management, 30 (1-2), 30-59.
Morgan, M. & Xu, F. (2009) 'Student travel experiences: Memories and dreams', Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 18 (2-3), 216-236.
Mossberg, L. (1995) 'Tour leaders and their importance in charter tours', Tourism Management, 16 (6), 437-445.
Pearce, P. L. (2005a) 'The role of relationships in the tourist experience', in W. F. Theobald (ed), Global Tourism, 3rd edn, Amsterdam: ButterworthHeinemann, pp. 103-122.
Pearce, P. L. (2005b) Tourist Behavior: Themes and Conceptual Schemes, Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Pine, B. & Gilmore, J. H. (1999) The Experience Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Praet, C. L. C., Gotoh, H., Miyazaki, Y., Lee, J. & Wang, L. (2015) 'Familiar and total strangers: An exploratory study of in-group and out-group perceptions among international ski resort visitors', in A. Ono, M. Kikumori & R. Takeuchi (eds.), Emerging Trends in Asian Markets, Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference of Asian Marketing Associations, Tokyo: Japan Society for Marketing and Distribution, pp. 120-135.
Prahalad, C. K. & Ramaswamy, V. (2003) 'The new frontier of experience innovation', MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (4), 12-18.
Prahalad, C. K. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004) The Future of Competition: Co-creating Unique Value with Customers, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Kock, N. & Ramayah, T. (2015) 'A revised framework of social exchange theory to investigate the factors influencing residents' perceptions', Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 335-345.
Reichenberger, I. (2017) 'C2C value co-creation through social interactions in tourism', International Journal of Tourism Research, 19 (6), 629-638.
Richards, G. (2010) 'Tourism development trajectories - From culture to creativity?' Tourism & Management Studies, 6, 9-15.
Rihova, I., Buhalis, D., Moital, M. & Gouthro, M. B. (2013) 'Social layers of customer-to-customer value co-creation', Journal of Service Management, 24 (5), 553-566.
Rihova, I., Buhalis, D., Moital, M. & Gouthro, M. B. (2015) 'Conceptualising customer-to-customer value co-creation in tourism', International Journal of Tourism Research, 17 (4), 356-363.
Salvado, J. (2011) 'Ecosystem model: Building travel agencies' business resilience in Portugal', European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 2 (1), 95-116.
Scott, N., Laws, E. & Boksberger, P. (2009) 'The marketing of hospitality and leisure experiences', Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 18 (2-3), 99-110.
Strauss, A. L. & Corbin, J. M. (1990) 'Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria', Qualitative Sociology, 13 (1), 3-21.
Urry, J. (1990) The Tourist Gaze Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies, London: Sage.
Urry, J. & Larsen, J. (2011) The Tourist Gaze 3.0, London: Sage.
Vargo, S. L. & Lusch, R. F. (2004) 'Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing', Journal of Marketing, 68 (1), 1-17.
Vargo, S. L. & Lusch, R. F. (2008) 'Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1), 1-10.
WTO (World Tourism Organization) (2018) 'Asia and the Pacific newsletter (2018 - issue 46)', Retrieved July 3, 2018 from http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/180608unwto46jeoyongryang.pdf.
Yagi, C. (2001) 'How tourists see other tourists? Analysis of online travelogues', Journal of Tourism Studies, 12 (2), 22-31.
Yagi, C. & Pearce, P. L. (2007) 'The influence of appearance and the number of people viewed on tourist preferences for seeing other tourists', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15 (1), 28-43.
Yang, F. X. (2015) 'Tourist co-created destination image', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33 (4), 425-439.