Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 4 Air connectivity for leisure tourism the way forward

DOI: 10.23912/9781911635932-4961

ISBN: 9781911635932

Published: Sept 2021

Component type: chapter

Published in: Tourism Dynamics

Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635932-4921



International tourism arrivals by air account for almost 60% of all tourism arrivals. Despite the spectacular increase in air connectivity there are distinct differences between connectivity types, with direct and indirect connectivity, airport connectivity and hub connectivity. Tourism destinations are impacted by the air connectivity type that is available in their nearby or serving airport. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the tourism dynamics resulting from the emerging transformations in air connectivity, and the implications on international air travel. Increased air connectivity is linked to economic growth and development, however direct air connectivity has been driving both tourism and air transport industries. The introduction of new aircraft which can fly longer and more economically is likely to transform direct connectivity and hub connectivity at the same time. Airline business models have evolved over the last 20 years and it is highly likely that this transformation will continue to unfold since the market and the passengers’ needs are constantly evolving. Implications for airlines and destinations will be discussed, outlining the trends which are dominating the industry in terms of connectivity and its relation to tourism destinations.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Arvanitis, 2021

Arvanitis, P. (2021) "Chapter 4 Air connectivity for leisure tourism the way forward" In: Pappas, N. & Farmaki, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635932-4961


ACI Asia Pacific (2021). Long Term Recovery of Airport Sector Contingent on Short Term Actions. Press Release.

ACI Europe (2019). Airport Industry Connectivity Report.

Airbus, (2019). Airbus and Emirates reach agreement on A380 fleet, sign new widebody orders. https://www.airbus.com/newsroom/press-releases/en/2019/02/airbus-and-emirates-reach-agreement-on-a380-fleet--sign-new-widebody-orders.html.

Allroggen, F., Wittman, M., & Malina, R. (2015) How air transport connects the world - A new metric of air connectivity and its evolution between 1990 and 2012. Transportation Research Part E, 80, 184-201.


Aviation Week (2021). Why The Widebody Market Will Remain Weak For Years. 04 January.

Aviation Week (2020). 'Survival of Airbus' At Risk, Faury Warns, 27 April.

Burghouwt, G. (2016). Focus on benefits: Assessing consumer welfare impacts of aviation policy measures Airline responses, lumpy capacity and hub rationalization. OECD International Transport Forum. www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/asssessing-consumer-welfare-impacts-aviation-policy.pdf.

Burghouwt, G. (2017). Influencing air connectivity outcomes. International Transport Forum Discussion Paper.

Burghouwt, B., & Wit, W. (2015). On the mechanisms that can potentially influence connectivity outcomes in the UK (SEO Report No 2015-40). www.seo.nl/uploads/media/201540_On_the_mechanisms_that_can_potentially_influence_connectivity_outcomes_in_the_UK.pdf.

Cheung, T., Wong, C., & Zhang, A. (2020). The evolution of aviation network: Global airport connectivity index 2006-2016. Transportation Research Part E, 133, 101826.


Coles, T., & Hall, C.M. (2006). The geography of tourism is dead: Long live geographies of tourism and mobility. Current Issues in Tourism 9(4-5), 289-292.


Coles, T., Duval, D., & Hall, C.M. (2004). Tourism, mobility and global communities: New approaches to theorising tourism and tourist spaces In W. Theobold (Ed.) Global Tourism, 3 rd ed. (p.p. 463-481). Oxford, UK: Heinemann.

ComMark. (2006). Clear skies over Southern Africa, The importance of air transport liberalisation for shared economic growth. Johannesburg: ComMark.

Dobruszkes, F., & Mondou, V. (2013). Aviation liberalization as a means to promote international tourism: The EU-Morocco case. Journal of Air Transport Management, 29, 23-34.


Duval, D. T., & Schiff, A. (2011). Effect of air services availability on international visitors to New Zealand. Journal of Air Transport Management, 17(3), 175-180.


Fageda, X., Suárez-Alemán, A., Serebrisky, T., & Fioravanti, R. (2018). Air connectivity in remote regions: A comprehensive review of existing transport policies worldwide. Journal of Air Transport Management, 66, 65-75.


Forsyth, P. (2006). Aviation and tourism. In L. Dwyer, & P. Forsyth (Eds.) International Handbook on the Economics of Tourism (p.p. 581-623). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Forbes, (2020a). The last A380 just rolled off Airbus' production line. it may never fly a single passenger. 25 September. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erictegler/2020/09/25/the-last-a380-superjumbo-just-rolled-off-airbus- production-line-will-it-ever-fly-passengers/.

Forbes (2020b). The Pandemic Is Forcing Big Airlines To Make Profound, Long-Lasting Decisions About Their Fleets. 09 November. https://www.forbes.com/sites/danielreed/2020/11/09/the-pandemic-is-forcing-big-airlines-to-make- profound-long-lasting-decisions-about-their-fleets/.

Graham, A., Papatheodorou, A., & Forsyth, P. (2008). Aviation and Tourism: Implications for leisure travel. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Guimera, R., Mossa, S., Turtschi, A., & Amaral, L.A.N., (2005). The Worldwide Air Transportation Network: anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities global roles. PNAS 102, 7794-7799.


Hall, C.M., Amore, A., & Arvanitis, P. (2019). The globalising force of human mobilities, in D. Timothy (ed), Handbook of Globalisation and Tourism (p.p. 55-65). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar.

Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority (HCAA) (2019). Statistical data of Paros airport for the period 1994 - 2018. http://www.ypa.gr/en/our-airports/kratikos-aerolimenas-paroy-kapa.

IATA (2020). Air Connectivity: Measuring the connections that drive economic growth. IATA, Montreal.

IATA (2019). World Air Transport Statistics, Plus Edition 2019. Montreal - Geneva.

IATA (2018). World Air Transport Statistics, Plus Edition 2018. Montreal - Geneva.

ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organisation (2021). Air Transport Accessibility. Montreal.

Joshan, S., & Maertens, S. (2020). Low cost carriers in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Emergence and barriers to development. Journal of Transport Geography, 87. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102799.


Karl, M., Bauer, A., Ritchie, W.B., & Passauer, M. (2020). The impact of travel constraints on travel decision-making: A comparative approach of travel frequencies and intended travel participation. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 18. Doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100471.


Li, Z. Zhang, S., Liu, X., Kozak, M., & Wen, J. (2020). Seeing the invisible hand: Underlying effects of COVID-19 on tourist's behavioral patterns. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 18. Doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100502.


Ma, W., Zhang, A., Zhang, Y., & Xu, S. (2021). The growing influence of low- cost carriers in Northeast Asia and its implications for a regional single aviation market. Journal of Air Transport Management: 91. Doi:10.1016/j.airtraman.2020.101994.

Morrison, S.A., & Winston, C., (1995). The Evolution of the Airline Industry. Brookings, Washington DC.

Northwestern University, (2012). Researchers Show Complex Networks Have Same Skeletons. Northwestern University. https://www.mccormick.northwestern.edu/news/articles/2012/06/article_brockmann-networks-skeletons.html.

PricewaterHouseCoopers (2017). Connectivity and Growth.

Redondi, R., Malighetti, P., & Paleari, S. (2013). European connectivity: the role played by small airports. Journal of Transport Geography, 29, 86-94. doi. org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.01.010.


Santana, I, (2009). Do public service obligations hamper the cost competitiveness of regional airlines? Journal of Air Transport Management, 15, 344-349.

UNWTO (2021a). Worst year in tourism history with 1 billion fewer international arrivals. https://www.unwto.org/news/2020-worst-year-in-tourism-history-with-1-billion-fewer-international-arrivals?fbclid=IwAR38URWy1H5xFOrvRh88_laGdgQFYk28N9364icmokaDhDpvW-Ycwb7miI

UNWTO (2021b). International Tourism Highlights.

UNWTO (2019a). International Tourism Highlights.

UNWTO (2019b). International Tourist Arrivals to reach 1.4 billion two years ahead of forecasts. https://www.unwto.org/global/press-release/2019-01-21/international-tourist-arrivals-reach-14-billion-two-years-ahead-forecasts.

Williams, G. (2010). European experience with direct subsidization of air services. Public Money Management. 25, 155-161.


Wittmer, A., & Laesser, C. (2009). Customer issues related to limited air connectivity. Journal of Air Transport Management, 15, 23-25.


Zeigler, P., Pagliari, R., Suau-Sanchez, P., Malighetti, P., & Redando, R. (2017). Low-cost carrier entry at small European airports: Low-cost carrier effects on network connectivity and self-transfer potential. Journal of Transport Geography, 60, 68-79.


Zhu, Z., Zhang, A., Zhang, Y., Huang, Z., & Xu, S. (2019). Measuring air connectivity between China and Australia. Journal of Transport Geography, 74, 359-370.



Published in Tourism Dynamics

Hardback format [Details]Price: £105.00Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy