Welcome Guest [create an account] or log-in:

Chapter 1 Introduction

DOI: 10.23912/9781911635383-4577

ISBN: 9781911635383

Published: Nov 2020

Component type: chapter

Published in: Tracking Tourists

Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635383-4277



In the past twenty years we have seen changes in technology that have reconfigured the way in which tourists plan, travel, reflect and share experiences. These changes have caused us to reconsider how tourists travel and how they make decisions, as well as how destinations market themselves. The now ubiquitous use of mobile phones has been documented as being a major influence (Wang, Park and Fesenmaier, 2012). Yet, while large swathes of research have focused on the use of technology and the impact that technology has had upon tourists’ decision making, there is comparatively far less research that concentrates on using technology to understand where tourists travel to, and how they move between destinations and attractions. The tourism industry has been documented as lagging far further behind than other industries in its use of technology, particularly that which delivers research insights (Eccleston, Hardy and Hyslop, 2020). The reasons for this have not yet been explored in great detail, but they are quite possibly due to the fact that the tourism industry is dominated by small to medium sized businesses whose capacity for expenditure on the use of technology and research is limited, relative to other industry sectors such as mining and forestry. A second reason is that tourism is reliant on an element that is often far harder to control – people. Unlike sectors that use biological elements as their key resources, and can place sensors where needed without requiring consent, tourism’s reliance on humans and their interaction with technology makes tracking far more complex. A third reason is that tourism arguably lags behind other sectors because the methods available to the industry to track and understand mobility involve complex technology, and different methods require specialist analytical skills. The Director General of the World Health Organisation, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, argued that decision makers are facing an ‘infodemic’ as a result of large swathes of data being made available in order to assist understanding the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic (Zarocostas, 2020). The plethora of options facing the industry in regards to which technology to use and how, is undoubtedly adding to this lag.

Sample content

Click here to download PDF


For the source title:

Cite as

Hardy, 2020

Hardy, A. (2020) "Chapter 1 Introduction" In: Hardy, A. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635383-4577


Ahas, R., Aasa, A., Roose, A., Mark, U. and Silm, S. (2008) Evaluating passive mobile positioning data for tourism surveys: An Estonian case study data, Tourism Management, 469-486.


Bates, E. S. (1911) Touring in 1600: A Study in the Development of Travel as a Means of Education, London: Constable.

Bukart, A. and Medlik, S. (1981) Tourism: Past, Present and Future, 2nd edition, London: Heinemann.

Baines, J. (2006) Travel in Third and Second Millennium Egypt, in C. Adams and J. Roy (eds), Travel, Geography and Culture in Ancient Greece Egypt and the Near East, Haverton: Oxbow Books, pp. 5-30.

Casson. L. (1974) Travel in the Ancient World, London: Allen and Unwin.

Christensen, C. (1997) The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail, Boston: Harvard Review Press.

Cioffi, R. (2016) Travel in the Roman World. Oxford Handbooks Online, 1-39, Available at: https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935390.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935390-e-110 [Accessed 29 June 2020].


Clawson, M., and Knetsch,J. L. (1966) Economics of Outdoor Recreation, Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press

Cohen, E. (1979) Rethinking the sociology of tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 6(1), 18-35.


Cohen, S.A., Duncan, T., Thulemark, M. (2015) Lifestyle mobilities: The crossroads of travel, leisure and migration, Mobilities, 10, 155-172


Coles, T. and Hall, M. (2006) Editorial: The geography of tourism is dead. Long live geographies of tourism and mobility, Current Issues in Tourism, 9, 289-292.


Coryat, T. (1611) Coryat's Crudities, (reprinted 1776), London: W. Cater. Available at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=sGeowgOkNuIC [Accessed 12 August 2020].

Den Hoed, W. and Russo, A. P. (2017) Professional travellers and tourist practices, Annals of Tourism Research, 63, 60-72.


Denny, M. (2012) The Science of Navigation: From Dead Reckoning to GPS, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Eccleston, R., Hardy, A. and Hyslop, S. (2020) Unlocking the potential of tracking technology for co-created tourism planning and development: Insights from the Tourism Tracer Tasmania project, Tourism Planning & Development, 17(1) 82-95.


Feifer, M. (1985) Going Places: Tourism in history, New York: Stein and Day.

Franklin, A. (2003) Tourism: An introduction, London: Sage.


Graburn, N. H. (1983) The anthropology of tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 10(1), 9-33.


Gretzel, U. (2011) Intelligent systems in tourism: A social science perspective, Annals of Tourism, 38 (3), 757-779.


Gretzel, U., Sigala, M., Xiang, Z. and Koo, C. (2015) Smart tourism: foundations and developments, Electronic Markets, 25(3), 179-188.


Hall, C.M. and Williams, A.M. (2008) Tourism and Innovation, London: Routledge.

Hannam, K., Butler, G., and Paris, C. M. (2014) Developments and key issues in tourism mobilities, Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 171-185.


Hannam, K., Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2006) Editorial: mobilities, immobilities and mooring, Mobilities, 1(1), 1-22.


Hardy, A., and Aryal, J. (2020) Using innovations to understand tourist mobility in national parks, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(2), 263-283.


Hardy, A. and Birenboim, A. and Wells, M. (2020), Using geoinformatics to assess tourist dispersal at the state level, Annals of Tourism Research, 82,102903. Hardy, A., Eccleston, R.G., Tinch, D., Hyslop, S., Booth, K., Robards, B., Wong,


T.L and Aryal, J., (2020) Innovations in research technology: the case of tourism tracer, in C.S. Ooi & A. Hardy (Eds), Tourism in Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania: Forty South Publishing, 175-185.

Hern, A. (1967) The Seaside Holiday: The history of the English seaside resort, London: Cresset Press.

Herodotus (1921) Herodotus: The Histories, Digital version in Perseus Digital Library online: A.D. Godley (ed.), London; New York: Loeb Classical Library

Hirth, F. (1906) Origin of the mariner's compass in China, The Monist, 16 (3), 321-330.


Kim, J. J. and Fesenmaier, D. R. (2015) Measuring emotions in real time: implications for tourism experience design, Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 419-29.


Krippendorff, J. (1987) The Holiday Makers: Understanding the impacts of leisure and travel, London: Heinemann.

Lane, F. (1963) The economic meaning of the invention of the compass, The American Historical Review, 68 (3), 605-617.


Lewis, G. and Hardy, A. (2019) Wine tourists in Tasmania: An exploratory project using tourism tracer data, Unpublished report prepared by the University of Tasmania for Wine Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania: University of Tasmania.

Leurs, E. and Hardy, A. (2018) Tinder tourism: Tourist experiences beyond the tourism industry realm, Annals of Leisure Research 22 (3), 323-341.


McKercher, B., Shoval, N., Ng, E. and Birenboim, A. (2012) First and repeat visitor behaviour: GPS tracking and GIS analysis in Hong Kong, Tourism Geographies, 14(1), 147-161


Mead, W. E. (1914) The Grand Tour in the Eighteenth Century, New York: Houghton Mifflin

Parks, G.B. (1954) The English Traveler to Italy, Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura.

Pearce, P. L. (2011) Tourist Behaviour and the Contemporary World, Vol. 51, Channel View Publications.


Pimlott, J. (1947) The Englishman's Holiday: A Social History, London: Faber & Faber.

Raun, J., Shoval, N. and Tiru, M. (2020) Gateways for intra-national tourism flows: measured using two types of tracking technologies, International Journal of Tourism Cities, 6 (2), 261-278.


Raun, J. Ahas, R. and Tiru, M. (2016) Measuring tourism destinations using mobile tracking data, Tourism Management 57, 202-212.


Richardson, J. (1722) An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, The Crown, St Pauls Church Yard, London.

Robinson, H. (1976) A Geography of Tourism, Harlow: Longman. Salas-Olmedo, M.H., Moya-Gómez, B., García-Palomares, J.C. and Gutiérrez,

J. (2018) Tourists' digital footprint in cities: Comparing Big Data sources, Tourism Management, 66, 13-25.


Schumpeter, J. (1934) The Theory of Economic Development, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Schwab, K. (2016) The Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Sen, T. (2001) The travel records of Chinese pilgrims Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing: Sources for cross-cultural encounters between Ancient China and Ancient India, Education about Asia, 11 (3), 24- 33.

Shoval, N. (2012). Time geography and tourism, In The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Geographies (189-195), Routledge.

Shoval, N., McKercher, B., Ng, E. and Birenboim, A. (2011) Hotel location and tourism activity in cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4): 1594-1612.


Shoval, N., Schvimer, Y. and Tamir, M., (2018) Real-time measurement of tourists' objective and subjective emotions in time and space, Journal of Travel Research, 57(1) 3-16. Tenkanen, T., Di Minin, E. Heikinheimo, V., Hausmann, A., Her, M., Kajala, L.


and Toivonen. T. (2017) Instagram, Flickr, or Twitter: Assessing the usability of social media data for visitor monitoring in protected areas, Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1-11.


Tussyadiah, I. (2020) A review of research into automation in tourism: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research curated collection on artificial intelligence and robotics in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 81.


Tussyadiah, I. and Fesenmaier, D. (2009) Mediating tourist experiences: Access to places via shared videos, Annals of Tourism Research, 36(1), 24-40.


Versichele, M., Neutens, T., Claeys Bouuaert, M. and Van de Weghe, N. (2014) Time‐geographic derivation of feasible co‐presence opportunities from network‐constrained episodic movement data, Transactions in GIS, 18(5), 687-703.


Wang, D., Park, S. and Fesenmaier, D. (2012) The role of smartphones in mediating the touristic experience, Journal of Travel Research, 51(4), 371-387.


Xia, J. C., Arrowsmith, C., Jackson, M. and Cartwright, W. (2008) The wayfinding process relationships between decision-making and landmark utility, Tourism Management, 29(3), 445-457.


Yang, E., Khoo-Lattimore, C. and Arcodia, C. (2017) A narrative review of Asian female travellers: looking into the future through the past, Current Issues in Tourism, 20(10), 1008-1027. Yoshimura, Y., Sobolevsky, S., Ratti, C., Girardin, F., Carrascal, J. P., Blat, J. and


Sinatra, R. (2014) An analysis of visitors' behavior in the Louvre Museum: A study using Bluetooth data, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 41(6), 1113-1131.


Zarocostas, J. (2020), How to fight an infodemic, The Lancet, 395, 676.


Zheng, W., Huang, X., and Li, Y. (2017) Understanding the tourist mobility using GPS: Where is the next place?, Tourism Management, 59, 267-280.



Chapter 1 Introduction [Details]Price: €6.99*Licences / Downloadable file

Published in Tracking Tourists

Chapter 1 Introduction [Details]Price: €6.99*Licences / Downloadable file
Paperback format [Details]Price: €50.00Copies / Delivery by post
Terms and conditions of purchase | Privacy policy