Chapter 4 Optimising Low Carbon Mobility for Health and Equity
Published: November 2016
Component type: chapter
Published in: Low Carbon Mobility Transitions
Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-910158-64-7-2847
In modern human habitats, the places people reside and the goods, services and people that contribute to their wellbeing are often separated geographically, and transport options confer a health benefit by enabling access. The notion that access for equitable human wellbeing is the purpose of a transport system challenges the current neoliberal transport policy discourse, dominated by a perceived need to move goods, capital and labour for economic growth. In this chapter, we focus on low carbon transitions for land transport in cities that can also promote wellbeing and improve social justice, especially in cities that are currently dominated by the use of private motor vehicles for most trips. We critically review the links between land transport and health using a broad public health framework, arguing that policy processes need to account for complex dynamics and model a wider range of future outcomes in analysis of costs and benefits. Further, that these processes must involve the communities whose transport patterns are expected to change. We provide two real world examples of these principles in action from Auckland, New Zealand, a city with 60 years of urban planning predicated on universal car ownership and use.
- Alex Macmillan, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand (Author)
- Hamish Mackie, Mackie Research and Consulting, New Zealand (Author)
For the source title:
- Debbie Hopkins, Transport Studies Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, UK (Editor) http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7778-8989
- James Higham, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, NZ and University of Stavanger, Norway (Editor) http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1405-7035
Macmillan & Mackie, 2016
Macmillan, A. & Mackie, H. (2016) "Chapter 4 Optimising Low Carbon Mobility for Health and Equity" In: Hopkins, D. & Higham, J. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-64-7-3272
André, M. & Rapone, M. (2009). Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles. Atmospheric Environment, 43(5), 986-995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.013
Asbridge, M., Smart, R. G. & Mann, R. E. (2006). Can we prevent road rage? Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 7(2), 109-121. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838006286689
Banister, D. & Hickman, R. (2013). Transport futures: Thinking the unthinkable. Transport Policy, 29(0), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.07.005
Barton, H. & Grant, M. (2006). A health map for the local human habitat. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126(6), 252-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466424006070466
Battellino, H. (2009). Transport for the transport disadvantaged: A review of service delivery models in New South Wales. Transport Policy, 16(3), 123-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.006
Bhalla, K., Ezzati, M., Mahal, A., Salomon, J. & Reich, M. (2007). A risk-based method for modeling traffic fatalities. Risk Analysis, 27(1), 125-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00864.x
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Briggs, D., Abellan, J. J. & Fecht, D. (2008). Environmental inequity in England: Small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 1612-1629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.040
Camilloni, L., Farchi, S., Chini, F., Giorgi Rossi, P., Borgia, P. & Guasticchi, G. (2013). How socioeconomic status influences road traffic injuries and home injuries in Rome. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20(2), 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2012.692695
Charlton, S., Mackie, H., Baas, P., Hay, K., Menezes, M. & Dixon, C. (2010). Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 1989-1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.06.006
Charmaz, K. (2005). Grounded Theory in the 21st Century. Applications for Advancing Social Justice Studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed., 507-535). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Clifton, K. & Lucas, K. (2004). Examining the empirical evidence of transport inequality in the US and UK. In K. Lucas (Ed.), Running on Empty. Transport, social exclusion and environmental justice (15-36). Bristol: The Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861345707.003.0003
de Hartog, J. J., Boogaard, H., Nijland, H. & Hoek, G. (2010). Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8), 1109-1116. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901747
Dhar, D., Macmillan, A., Lindsay, G. & Woodward, A. (2009). Carbon pricing in New Zealand: implications for public health. New Zealand Medical Journal, 122(1290), 105-115.
Dora, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.). (2000). Transport, environment and health: World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe.
Eden, C. & Ackermann, F. (2004). Cognitive mapping expert views for policy analysis in the public sector. European Journal of Operational Research, 152(3), 615-630. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00061-4
Elvik, R. & Bjørnskau, T. (2016). Safety-in-numbers: A systematic review and meta- analysis of evidence. Safety Science. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.07.017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.07.017
Fahrig, L. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 487-515. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419
Fergusson, E., Terruhn, J., Gilbertson, A., Ovenden, K. & Wildish, B. (2016). Youth mobilities in the Southern Initiative, Auckland: transport practices and experiences of 15-24 year olds. Auckland.
Gibson, J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, Acting and Knowing (67-82): Lawrence Erlbaum.
Global Road Safety Facility and Evaluation. (2014). Transport for health: the global burden of disease from motorized road transport, Seattle, Washington (IHME) (The World Bank).
Gottholmseder, G., Nowotny, K., Pruckner, G. J. & Theurl, E. (2009). Stress perception and commuting. Health Economics, 18, 559-576. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1389
Hamer, M. & Chida, Y. (2008). Active commuting and cardiovascular risk: A meta-analytic review. Preventive Medicine, 46(1), 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.006
HEI Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution [HEI Panel]. (2010). Traffic-related air pollution: A critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects. Boston: Health Effects Institute.
Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polasky, S. & Tiffany, D. (2006). Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(30), 11206-11210. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604600103
Hosking, J., Ameratunga, S., Exeter, D., Stewart, J. & Bell, A. (2013). Ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical inequalities in road traffic injury rates in the Auckland region. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(2), 162-167. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12034
Hoskins, R. (2008). 'Our Faces in our Places': Cultural Landscapes – Mäori and the Urban Environment. In G. Fougere (Ed.), Re-thinking Urban Environments and Health. Wellington: Public Health Advisory Committee.
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2016). GBD Data Visualizations. Retrieved 11 June 2016, from University of Washington, http://www.healthdata.org/gbd/data-visualizations.
Jacobson, J. O., Hengartner, N. W. & Louis, T. A. (2005). Inequity measures for evaluations of environmental justice: a case study of close proximity to highways in New York City. Environment and Planning A, 37(1), 21-43. https://doi.org/10.1068/a36225
Jantunen, M., Kollanus, V., Leino, O., Happonen, E., Lim, T.-A. & Conrad, A. (2011). European perspectives on Environmental Burden of Disease: Estimates for nine stressors in six countries. In O. Hänninen & A. Knol (Eds.), EBoDE Project. Helsinki, Finland: World Health Organisation Europe.
Letherby, G. & Reynolds, G. (2003). Making connections: The relationship between train travel and the processes of work and leisure. Sociological Research Online, 8(3), 1.1-6.10. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.821
Lim, C., Kim, J., Hong, J. & Lee, S. (2006). The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(4), 2037-2042. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2266539
Lucas, K. (2011). Driving to the breadline. In K. Lucas, E. Blumenberg & R. Weinberger (Eds.), Auto Motives: Understanding Car Use Behaviours (209-224). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. https://doi.org/10.1108/9780857242341-011
Lucas, K., Tyler, S. & Christodoulou, G. (2009). Assessing the 'value' of new transport initiatives in deprived neighbourhoods in the UK. Transport Policy, 16(3), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.004
Lund, H. (2003). Testing the claims of new urbanism: Local access, pedestrian travel, and neighboring behaviours. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(4), 414-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360308976328
Mackie, H. W., Charlton, S. G., Baas, P. H. & Villasenor, P. C. (2012). Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, 742-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.06.026
Macmillan, A., Connor, J., Witten, K., Kearns, A., Rees, D. & Woodward, A. (2014). The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(4). https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250
Marmot, M. & Bell, R. (2012). Fair society, healthy lives. Public Health, 126, Supplement 1, S4-S10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.05.014
Martin, A., Panter, J., Suhrcke, M. & Ogilvie, D. (2015). Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69(8), 753-761. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2014-205211
Mees, P. & Dodson, J. (2006). Backtracking Auckland: bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning. In J. Dodson (Ed.), Urban Research Program Issues Papers. Brisbane: Griffith University.
Mindell, J., Rutter, H. & Watkins, S. (2011). Urban Transportation and Human Health. In J. O. Nriagu (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (578-589). Burlington: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-52272-6.00320-2
Ministry for the Environment. (2016). New Zealand's Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2014. Wellington: New Zealand Government Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/climate-change/new-zealand-greenhouse-gas-inventory-1990-2014.
Ministry of Health. (2015). Understanding excess body weight: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Mokhtarian, P. L. & Chen, C. (2004). TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 38(9-10), 643-675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2003.12.004
Ogilvie, D., Foster, C. E., Rothnie, H., Cavill, N., Hamilton, V., Fitzsimons, C. F. & Mutrie, N. (2007). Interventions to promote walking: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 334, 1204-1214. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39198.722720.BE
Parkin, J., Ryley, T. J. & Jones, T. (2007). Barriers to cycling: an exploration of quantitative analysis Civil Engineering: Book Chapters.
Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., Grove, J. M., Nilon, C. H., Pouyat, R. V., Zipperer, W. C. & Costanza, R. (2001). Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 127-157. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114012
Reardon, L. & Abdallah, S. (2013). Well-being and transport: Taking stock and looking forward. Transport Reviews, 33(6), 634-657. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2013.837117
Richardson, G. P. (2011). Reflections on the foundations of system dynamics. System Dynamics Review, 27(3), 219-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.462
Rissel, C., Curac, N., Greenaway, M.,& Bauman, A. (2012). Physical activity associated with public transport use—a review and modelling of potential benefits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(7), 2454-2478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9072454
Schwanen, T. (2011). Car use and gender: The case of dual-earner families in Utrecht, The Netherlands. In K. Lucas, E. Blumenberg & R. Weinberger (Eds.), Auto Motives. Understanding Car Use Behaviours (pp. 151-171). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. https://doi.org/10.1108/9780857242341-008
Spellerberg, I. F. (1998). Ecological effects of roads and traffic: A literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7(5), 317-333. https://doi.org/10.2307/2997681
Stanley, J. & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2009). The usefulness of social exclusion to inform social policy in transport. Transport Policy, 16(3), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.003
Tainio, M., de Nazelle, A. J., Götschi, T., Kahlmeier, S., Rojas-Rueda, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. & Woodcock, J. (2016). Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking? Preventive Medicine, 87, 233-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.002
Theeuwes, J. & Godthelp, H. (1995). Self-explaining roads. Safety Science, 19(2-3), 217-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-7535(94)00022-U
Tonne, C., Beevers, S., Armstrong, B., Kelly, F. & Wilkinson, P. (2008). Air pollution and mortality benefits of the London Congestion Charge: spatial and socioeconomic inequalities. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(9), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2007.036533
Trombulak, S. C. & Frissell, C. A. (2000). Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology, 14(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99084.x
Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kaźmierczak, A., Niemela, J. & James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81(3), 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001
United Nations, (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. Highlights, (ST/ESA/SER.A/352). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations: New York. Available from: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf.
van Vliet, P. & Schermers, G. (2000). Sustainable safety: A new approach for road safety in the Netherlands. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Traffic Research Centre.
Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W. & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351
Watts, N., Adger, W. N., Agnolucci, P., Blackstock, J., Byass, P., Cai, W., Chaytor, S., Colbourn, T., Collins, M., Cooper, A., Cox, P.M., Depledge, J., Drummond, P., Ekins, P., Galaz, V., Grace, D., Graham, H., Grubb, M., Haines, A., Hamilton, I., Hunter, A., Jiang, X., Li, M., Kelman, I., Liang, L., Lott, M., Lowe, R., Luo, Y., Mace, G., Maslin, M., Nilsson, M., Oreszczyn, T., Pye, S., Quinn, T., Svensdotter, M., Venevsky, S., Warner, K., Xu, B., Yang, J., Yin, Y., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Gong, P., Montgomery, H. & Costello, A. (2015). Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. The Lancet, 370(9592), 1078-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60854-6
Weller, G., Schlag, B., Friedel, T. & Rammin, C. (2008). Behaviourally relevant road categorisation: A step towards self-explaining rural roads. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(4), 1581-1588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.04.009
Woodcock, J., Banister, D., Edwards, P., Prentice, A. M. & Roberts, I. (2007). Energy and transport. The Lancet, 370(9592), 1078-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61254-9
Woodcock, J., Franco, O. H., Orsini, N. & Roberts, I. (2011). Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(1), 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyq104
World Health Organisation. (1948). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organisation as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organisation, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
World health Organisation. (2010). Health in the green economy. Co-benefits to health of climate change mitigation: Transport Sector. Preliminary findings - initial review. Geneva: WHO Public Health & Environment Cluster (HSE).
World Health Organisation. (2015). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015. Geneva.
World Resources Institute. (2014). Climate Analysis Indicators Tool: WRI's Climate Data Explorer. Historical Emissions 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2016, from World Resources Institute http://cait2.wri.org/.