Chapter 7 Music Consumption
Published: May 2013
Component type: chapter
Published in: Music, Markets and Consumption
Parent DOI: 10.23912/978-1-908999-52-8-2009
Music can be heard everywhere, infiltrating our everyday existence. Not only does one choose to listen to music across a range of situations, times and spaces; one is also exposed to music in innumerable day-to-day situations – on public transport, from a passing car, through advertisements. Even prior to the technological advances which have revolutionized the way music is acquired, purchased and used (Elberse 2010; Simun 2009), Merriam noted that ‘the importance of music, as judged by the sheer ubiquity of its presence, is enormous... There is probably no other human cultural activity which is so all-pervasive and which reaches into, shapes and often controls so much of human behaviour’ (1964: 218). Technological, social and cultural trends have only served to deepen and diversify the ways in which one listens to, or engages with, music. The marketing and consumer behaviour perspective on music engagement has focused primarily on experiential aspects. Interest in the consumption of music arose on the back of the experiential turn in consumer research, and the associated interest in aesthetic products (e.g. Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). Music is a rich and complex symbolic, social and political product (Larsen et al., 2010), the experience of which can be distinguished from the consumption of other kinds of products. For example, music is the only product which is primarily auditory (Larsen and Lawson, 2010); consumption does not alter its recorded form and it can be consumed actively or passively, with or without ownership, in private and in public (Lacher and Mizerski, 1994). As a result, most of our knowledge about the consumption of music has concentrated on the emotional and aesthetic reasons for listening to music (e.g. Cherian and Jones, 1991; Kellaris and Kent, 1993; Lacher and Mizerski, 1994; North and Hargreaves, 1997; Chien et al., 2007; Lonsdale and North, 2011); the relationship between music and identity, particularly the use of music as a ‘badge of identity’ (e.g. Holbrook, 1986; DeNora, 1999; North and Hargreaves, 1999; Shankar, 2000; Goulding et al., 2002; Negus and Velazquez, 2002; Nuttall, 2009) and the symbolic function of music (Hogg and Banister, 2000; Larsen et al., 2009, 2010). There is a broader question, underlying this body of knowledge, which remains unexamined. That is: What does it mean to frame music engagement as consumption and music listeners as consumers, and what are the consequences of doing so for our understanding of music consumption? As conceptualized by Holbrook and Anand (1990) and Lacher and Mizerski (1994), music consumption is the act of listening to a piece of music. Listening to music is, without a doubt, one of the most significant aspects of the act of consuming music; however, it does not entirely capture all that is involved. For example, talking and reading about music are also important activities in consuming music (Larsen et al., 2009). If, in addition, one also acknowledges that the music product can be an artist, venue and associated paraphernalia (see Chapter 3), then the consumption of the music product must necessarily go beyond listening. Finally, this conceptualization does not help us to identify or understand how the experience of engaging with music differs if one does it as an audience member, as a fan, or as a consumer. Thus, a clearer understanding is needed of what one means by consumption in the context of music.
- Dr Daragh O’Reilly, University of Sheffield (Author)
- Dr Gretchen Larsen, King’s College London (Author)
- Dr Krzysztof Kubacki, Griffith University (Author)
For the source title:
- Dr Daragh O’Reilly, University of Sheffield (Author)
- Dr Gretchen Larsen, King’s College London (Author)
- Dr Krzysztof Kubacki, Griffith University (Author)
O’Reilly, Larsen & Kubacki, 2013
O’Reilly, D.D., Larsen, D.G. & Kubacki, D.K. (2013) "Chapter 7 Music Consumption" In: O’Reilly, D.D., Larsen, D.G. & Kubacki, D.K. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-908999-52-8-2250
Abercrombie, N. and Longhurst, B. (1998) Audiences: A Sociological Theory of Performance and Imagination, London: Sage.
Adorno, T. (1991) The Culture Industry, London: Routledge Classics.
Arnould, E. and Thompson, C. (2005) 'Consumer Culture Theory (CCT); twenty years of research' Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (4), 868-882.
Arnould, E., Price, L. and Zinkhan, G. (2004) Consumers, Second edition, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Arsel, Z. and Thompson, C. (2011) 'Demythologizing consumption practices: how consumers protect their field dependent identity investments from devaluing marketplace myths', Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (5), 791-806.
Attali, J. (1977/1985) Noise: The Political Economy of Music, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bettman, J.R. (1979) An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Reading: Addison Wesley.
Borgerson, J. (2005) 'Materiality, agency and the constitution of consuming subjects: insights for consumer research', Advances in Consumer Research, 32, 439-43.
Bowman, W.D. (1998) Philosophical Perspectives on Music, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cherian, J. and Jones, M. (1991) 'Some processes in brand categorizing: why one person's noise is another person's music', Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 77-83.
Chien, L., Zhou, S. and Bryant, J. (2007) 'Temporal changes in mood repair through music consumption: effects of mood, mood salience and individual differences' Media Psychology, 9 (3), 695-713.
Cockrill, A., Sullivan, M. and Norbury, H. (2011) 'Music consumption: lifestyle choice or addiction', Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18, 160-166.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, New York: Harper and Row.
Denegri-Knott, J. (2004) 'Sinking the online "music pirates:" Foucault, power and deviance on the web', Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 9 (4), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol9/issue4/denegri_knott.html [Accessed 30 April 2013]
DeNora, T. (1999) 'Music as a technology of the self' Poetics, 27, 31-56.
DeNora, T. (2000) Music in Everyday Life, Cambridge: Cambridge Unity Press.
des Barres, P. (2007) Let's Spend the Night Together: Backstage Secrets of Rock Muses and Supergroupies, London: Helter Skelter.
Dichter, E. (1964) Handbook of Consumer Motivations, New York: McGraw Hill.
Dilmperi, A., King, T. and Dennis, C. (2011) 'Pirates of the web: the curse of illegal downloading', Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18, 132-140.
Dittmar, H. (1992) The Social Psychology of Material Possessions: To Have Is to Be, Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York, NY: St Martin's Press.
Douglas, M. and Isherwood, B. (1979) The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption, New York: Basic Goods.
Elberse, A. (2010) 'Bye-bye bundles: the unbundling of music in digital channels', Journal of Marketing, 74 (3), 107-123.
Fonarow, W. (2006) Empire of Dirt: The Aesthetics and Rituals of British Indie Music. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Fox, M. and Wren, B. (2001) 'A broadcasting model for the music industry', Journal of Media Management, 3(2), 112-119.
Furby, L. (1978) 'Possessions: toward a theory of their meaning and function throughout the life cycle', in: Baltes, P.B. (ed.) Lifespan Development and Behaviour, Vol 1., New York, NY: Academic Press, 297-336.
Gabriel, Y. and Lang, T. (2006) The Unmanageable Consumer, London: Sage Giesler, M. and Pohlmann, M. (2003a) 'The social form of Napster: cultivating the paradox of consumer emancipation', Advances in Consumer Research, 30 (1), 94-100.
Giesler, M. and Pohlmann, M. (2003b) 'The anthropology of file sharing: consuming Napster as a gift', Advances in Consumer Research, 30 (1), 273-279.
Gopal, R.D., Sanders, G.L., Bhattacharjee, S., Agrawal, M. and Wagner, S. (2004) 'A behavioural model of digital music piracy', Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 14 (2), 89-105.
Goulding, C., Shankar, A. and Elliott, E. (2002) 'Working weeks, rave weekends: identity fragmentation and the emergence of new communities', Consumption, Markets and Culture, 5 (4), 261-284.
Graeber, D. (2011) 'Consumption', Current Anthropology, 52 (4), 489-511.
Hargreaves, D.J. and North, A.C. (1999) 'The functions of music in everyday life: redefining the social in music psychology', Psychology of Music, 27, 71-83.
Hargreaves, D.J., Miell, D.E. and MacDonald, R.A.R. (2002) 'What are musical iden- tities, and why are they important?', in: MacDonald, R.A.R., Hargreaves, D.J. and Miell, D.E. (eds), Musical Identities, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1-20.
Hebdige, D. (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style, London: Routledge.
Hogg, M.K., Banister, E.N. (2000) 'The structure and transfer of cultural meaning: a study of young consumers and pop music', Advances in Consumer Research, 27, 19-23.
Holbrook, M.B. (1986) 'I'm hip: an autobiographical account of some musical consumption experiences', Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 614-618.
Holbrook, M.B. (1995) Consumer Research: Introspective Essays on the Study of Consumption, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Holbrook, M.B. and Anand, P. (1990) 'Effects of tempo on responses to music', Psychology of Music, 18, 150-162.
Holbrook, M.B. and Hirschman, E. (1982) 'The experiential aspects of consumption: consumer fantasies, feelings and fun', Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 132-140.
Hornby, N (1995) High Fidelity, London: Victor Gollancz Ltd
Howard, J.A. and Sheth, J.N. (1969) The Theory of Buyer Behaviour, New York: John Wiley.
Karababa, E. and Ger, G. (2011) 'Early modern Ottoman coffeehouse culture and the formation of the consumer subject', Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (5), 737-760.
Karageorghis, C.I. and Priest, D.L. (2008) 'Music in sport and exercise: an update on research and application', The Sport Journal, [online] 11 (3), http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/music-sport-and-exercise-update-research-and-application [Accessed 30 April 2013].
Kellaris, J.J. and Kent, R.J. (1993) 'An exploratory investigation of responses elicited by music varying in tempo, tonality and texture', Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2 (4), 381-401.
Kozinets, R.V. (2002) 'Can consumers escape the market? Emancipatory illuminations from burning man', Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (1), 20-38.
Kwong, K.K., Yau, O.H.M., Lee, J.S.Y., Sin, L.Y.M. and Tse, C.B. (2003) 'The effects of attitudinal and demographic factors on intention to buy pirated CDs: the case of Chinese customers', Journal of Business Ethics, 47 (3), 223-235.
Lacher, K.T. and Mizerski, R. (1994) 'An exploratory study of the responses and relationships involved in the evaluation of, and in the intention to purchase new rock music', Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (September), 366-380.
Laing, D. (1985) 'Music video: industrial product, cultural form', Screen, 26 (2), 78-83.
Langenderfer, J. and Cook, D.L. (2001) 'Copyright policies and issues raised by A&M Records v. Napster: "The Shot Heard 'Round the World" or "Not with a Bang but a Whimper?"' Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20 (2) (Fall), 280-288.
Larsen, G. (2012) 'Music groupies: challenging co-creation?' 11th International Colloquium of the Academy of Marketing SIG on Arts, Heritage, Nonprofit and Social Marketing, 19 September, London.
Larsen, G. and Lawson, R. (2010) 'Evolving Perspectives on Music Consumption', in: O'Reilly, D. and Kerrigan, F. (ed.) Marketing the Arts: A Fresh Approach, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 190-204.
Larsen, G. and O'Reilly, D. (2008) 'Festival tales: utopian tales', Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, 8-10 July, Aberdeen, Scotland.
Larsen, G., Lawson, R. and Todd, S. (2009) 'The consumption of music as self representation in social interaction' Australasian Marketing Journal, 17 (3), 16-26.
Larsen, G., Lawson, R. and Todd, S. (2010) 'The symbolic consumption of music', Journal of Marketing Management, 26 (7/8), 671-685.
Levy, S (1959) 'Symbols For sale', Harvard Business Review, (July/August), 117-124.
Longhurst, B. (2007) Popular Music and Society, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Lonsdale, A.J. and North, A.C. (2011) 'Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratifications analysis', British Journal of Psychology, 102, 108-134.
Macdonald, R., Hargreaves, D. and Miell, D. (2002) Musical Identities, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maclaran, P. (2009) 'Postmodern marketing and beyond', in Parsons, E. and Maclaran, P. (ed.) Contemporary Issues in Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 37-54.
McCracken, G. (1988) Culture and Consumption: New Approaches to the Symbolic Character of Consumer Goods and Activities, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Merriam, A.P. (1964) The Anthropology of Music, Chicago: Northwestern University Press.
Moore, R.M. and McMullan, E.C. (2004) 'Perceptions of peer-to-peer file-sharing among university students', Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 11 (1), 1-19.
Negus, K. and Velázquez, P. (2002) 'Belonging and detachment: musical experience and the limits of identity' Poetics, 30, 133-145.
North, A.C and Hargreaves, D.J. (1997) 'Music and consumer behaviour', in: Hargreaves, D.J. and North, A.C. (ed.) Social Psychology of Music, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
North, A.C. and Hargreaves, D.J. (1999) 'Music and adolescent identity', Music Education Research 1(1): 75-92.
Nuttall, P. (2009) 'Insiders, regulars and tourists: exploring selves and music consumption in adolescence', Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8 (4), 211-224.
Ouellet, J.F. (2007) 'The purchase versus illegal download of music by consumers: the influence of consumer response towards the artist and music', Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 24, 107-119.
Oxford Dictionaries Online (2012) 'Audience', http://oxforddictionaries.com/ definition/english/audience?q=audience [Accessed: 30 April 2013].
Richards, C. (1998) Teen Spirits: Music and Identity in Media Education, London: UCL London.
Shankar, A. (2000) 'Lost in music? Subjective personal introspection and popular music consumption', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3 (1), 27-37.
Simun, M., (2009) 'My music, my world: using the MP3 Player to shape experience in London', New Media & Society, 11 (6), 921-941.
Smart, B (2010) Consumer Society: Critical Issues and Environmental Consequences, London: SAGE Publications
Straw, W. (1997) 'Sizing up record collections: gender and connoisseurship in rock music culture', in: Whiteley, S. (ed.) Sexing the Groove: Popular Music and Gender, London: Routledge, 3-16.
Terry, P.C. and Karageorghis, C.I. (2006) 'Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: an update on theory, research and application', in: Katsikitis, M. (ed.), Psychology Bridging the Tasman: Science, Culture and Practice - Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society, Melbourne: Australian Psychological Society: 415-419.
The Century of the Self (2002), documentary film, Adam Curtis (Director), BBC Four, United Kingdom
Thorne, S. (2011) 'An exploratory investigation of the theorized levels of consumer fanaticism', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 14 (2), 160-173.
Thornton, S. (1995) Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Vargo, S. and Lusch, R. (2004) 'Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing', Journal of Marketing 68 (January), 1-17.
Veblen, T. (1899) The Theory of the Leisure Class, New York: Macmillan.
Vitell, S.J. and Muncy, J. (2005) 'The Muncy-Vitell consumer ethics scale: a modification and application' Journal of Business Ethics, 62, 267-275.
Waterman, S. (1998). 'Carnivals for élites? The cultural politics of arts festivals', Progress in Human Geography 22 (1), 54-74.
Wilk, R. (2004) 'Morals and metaphors: the meaning of consumption', in: Ekstrom, K. and Brembeck, H. (ed.) Elusive Consumption, London: Berg, 11-26.
Williams, R. (1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, London: Fontana.
Wingrove, T., Korpas, A.L. and Weisz, V. (2010) 'Why were millions of people not obeying the law? Motivational influences on non-compliance with the law in the case of music piracy', Psychology, Crime & Law, 1477-2744, 1-16.
Woodward, M. and Holbrook, M. (forthcoming) 'Dialogue on some concepts, definitions, and issues pertaining to "consumption experiences"', Marketing Theory.