Chapter 1 Theoretical Perspectives of Crisis Management and Recovery for Events (Vassilios Ziakas, Vladimir Antchak and Donald Getz)
Published: April 2021
Component type: chapter
Parent DOI: 10.23912/9781911635901-4692
The world is always subject to crises and many times significant developments or changes occur in the aftermath of a crisis. In this regard, any crisis can be viewed as a turning point or critical juncture, though typically characterized by ambiguity, volatility and grave worries about the future. A crisis can cause continuing existential and socio-economic impacts; however, it also provides opportunities for creativity and innovation by re-imagining and reconfiguring the strategic purpose of organizations. Crises are apposite circumstances for reflection on management approaches, decision-making and the overall stability and sustainability of any system within which individual organizations operate. Arguably, any crisis prompts change to systems and organizations analogous to its scale and extent of multifaceted impacts. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point of a multifaceted crisis as it is not only a health emergency. It entirely disrupted the social world and its commerce bringing about serious repercussions to the everyday life of people. The event sector, being a mirror of society, has been affected dramatically. Compulsory closures and regulations regarding social distancing led to innumerable postponements or cancellations of planned events, from the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo to the smallest of community celebrations. Professional and amateur sports alike postponed or cancelled their seasons. Businesses of all scales all along the supply chain, including the venues, entertainers, and suppliers of goods and services, suffered enormous economic losses.
- Vassilios Ziakas (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1501-7863
- Vladimir Antchak, University of Derby (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1395-4391
- Donald Getz, University of Queensland (Author) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5562-8012
For the source title:
- Vassilios Ziakas (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1501-7863
- Vladimir Antchak, University of Derby (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1395-4391
- Donald Getz, University of Calgary (Editor) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5562-8012
Ziakas, Antchak & Getz, 2021
Ziakas, V., Antchak, V. & Getz, D. (2021) "Chapter 1 Theoretical Perspectives of Crisis Management and Recovery for Events (Vassilios Ziakas, Vladimir Antchak and Donald Getz)" In: Ziakas, V., Antchak, V. & Getz, D. (ed) . Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/9781911635901-4830
Andersson, T., Getz, D., & Mykletun, R. (2013). Sustainable festival populations: An application of organizational ecology. Tourism Analysis, 18(6), 621-634.
Antchak, V., Ziakas, V., & Getz, D. (2019). Event Portfolio Management: Theory and practice for event management and tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow.
Billings, R., Milburn T., & Schaalman, M. (1980). A model of crisis perception: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 300-316.
Bosher, L., & Chmutina, K. (2017). Disaster Risk Reduction for the Built Environment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Boukas, N., & Ziakas, V. (2014). A chaos theory perspective of destination crisis and sustainable tourism development in islands: The case of Cyprus. Tourism Planning and Development, 11(2), 191-209.
Derrett, R. (2008). How festivals nurture resilience in regional communities. In, J. Ali-Knight, M. Robertson, A. Fyall & A. Ladkin (Eds.), International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of analysis (pp. 107-124). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Faulkner, B. (2001). Towards a framework for tourism disaster management. Tourism Management, 22(2), 135-47.
Friedman, U. (2020). We Were Warned! The Atlantic, March 18, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/03/pandemic-coronavirus-united- statestrump-cdc/608215/; accessed June 23, 2020.
Getz, D. (2013). Event Tourism: Concepts, international case studies and research. New York: Cognizant.
Gilligan, M. & Pearson, H. (2020). 2020 Calgary Stampede cancelled for first time in over 100 years amid COVID-19. Global News, April 24. https://globalnews.ca/news/6815098/covid-19-2020-calgary-stampede-update/; accessed June 23, 2020.
Godschalk, D. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities. Natural Hazards Review, 4(3), 136-143.
Guardian, The (2020a). UK live music festivals sector at risk coronavirus, May 13. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2020/may/13/uk-live-music-festivals-sector-at-risk748coronavirus; accessed June 1, 2020.
Guardian, The (2020b). Tokyo Olympics 2021 last chance agrees IOC chief, May 21. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2020/may/21/tokyo-olympics-2021-last-chanceagrees-ioc-chief; accessed June 1, 2020.
Hall, C.M., Timothy, D., & Duval, D. (2004). Security and tourism: Towards a new understanding? Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing,15,(2-3), 1-18.
Hermann, C. (1963). Some consequences of crisis which limit the viability of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 8(1), 61-82.
Holmes, K., & Ali-Knight, J. (2017). The event and festival lifecycle: Developing a new model for a new context. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(3), 986-1004.
Jeffery, L. (2020). Shakespeare's Globe May Not Survive Pandemic, U.K. Lawmakers Warn. London: NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-liveupdates/2020/05/19/858754044/shakespeares-globe-may-not-survive- pandemic-u-klawmakers-warn; accessed June 1, 2020.
Laws, E., & Prideaux, B. (2005). Crisis management: A suggested typology. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing,19(2-3), 1-8.
Maga, C. (2020). Stratford Festival suspends 2020 season indefinitely due to COVID-19. The Star, April 27. https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/stage/2020/04/27/stratford-festival-suspends-2020-season-indefinitely-due-to-covid-19.html; accessed June 1, 2020.
McCarthy, I., Collard, M., & Johnson, M. (2017). Adaptive organizational resilience: An evolutionary perspective. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 28, 33-40.
McGillivray, D., & Turner, D. (2017). Event Bidding: Politics, persuasion and resistance. Abingdon: Routledge.
McKercher, B., & Hui, E. (2004). Terrorism, economic uncertainty and outbound travel from Hong Kong. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 15(2-3), 99-115.
Nohria, N. (2006). Collaboration: Survival of the Adaptive. The Harvard Business Review (May). https://hbr.org/2006/05/preparing-for-a-pandemic#post3
accessed June 23, 2020. Norris, F.H., Stevens, S.P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K.F., & Pfefferbaum, R.L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(1- 2), 127-50.
Olmedo, E., & Mateos, R. (2015). Quantitative characterization of chaordic tourist destination. Tourism Management, 47, 115-126.
O'Toole, W., Luke, S., Semmons, T., Brown, J., & Tatrai, A. (2020). Crowd Management: Risk, security and health. Oxford: Goodfellow.
Parsons W. (1996). Crisis management. Career Development International, 1(5), 26‐8.
Paraskevas, A. (2006). Crisis management or crisis response system? A complexity science approach to organizational crises. Management Decision, 44(7), 892-906.
Pauchant, T.C., & Mitroff, I.I. (1992). Transforming the Crisis-prone Organization: Preventing individual, organizational, and environmental tragedies. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Pforr, C., & Hosie, P. (2008). Crisis management in tourism. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 23(2-4), 249-264.
Perlstein, M. (2020). Mardi-gras may have been the perfect petri dish for coronavirus experts say. New Orleans: WWWLTV, March 17. https://www.wwltv.com/article/news/health/coronavirus/mardi-gras-may-have-been-theperfect-petri-dish-for-coronavirus-experts-say/289-d6f081f4-82f1-4847-9685- 8a645f1406b1; accessed June 1, 2020.
Quarantelli, E.I. (1988). Disaster crisis management: A summary of research findings. Journal of Management Studies, 25, 273-385.
Resilience (2021) Six Foundations for Community Resilience. https://www.resilience.org/six-foundations-for-community-resilience
Ritchie, B.W., & Jiang, Y. (2019). A review of research on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management: Launching the annals of tourism research curated collection on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management. Annals of Tourism Research, 79, 102812.
Root, J. (2006). Mardi Gras will party on despite Hurricane Katrina's destruction. LJWorld.com. https://www2.ljworld.com/news/2006/feb/18/mardi_gras_will_party_despite_hurricane_katrinas_d/; accessed June 1, 2020.
Scott, N., & Laws, E. (2005). Tourism crises and disasters: Enhancing understanding of system effects. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 19(2/3), 151-160.
Seeger, M., Sellnow, T., & Ulmer, R. (1998). Communication, organization, and crisis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 21(1), 231-276.
Senge, P. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organisation. New York: Doubleday.
Sky News (2020). Coronavirus: Champions League match a 'biological bomb'. https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-champions-league-match-a823biological-bomb-that-infected-bergamo-experts-say-11963905; accessed June 1, 2020.